Glyphis gangeticus   (Muller & Henle,  1839) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Elasmobranchii

Image copyrights: FAO

Size: Adult males at least 168 cm, females probably over 2 m.

Color: Light brownish or grey-brown above, light below; apparently no conspicuous markings.

A medium-sized to possibly large shark. Body moderately stout. Snout short, its length about equal to distance between nostrils and less than mouth width, labial furrows short; eyes very small; spiracles absent; nostrils with a low narrowly triangular anterior nasal flap; teeth in upper jaw triangular, with broad, high, serrated cusps, their outer edges nearly straight to concave but not notched; cusps of lower teeth narrow, tall, erect, and strongly hooked, conspicuously protruding when mouth is closed, with smooth edges, weak cusplets present on the first few anterior-most lower teeth, and strong arched bases. First dorsal fin high, with a pointed or slightly rounded apex, its origin a little in advance of pectoral fin insertions; second dorsal fin very high, about half the height of first dorsal, with its inner margin less than the fin height, its posterior margin moderately concave, and its origin slightly in front of anal fin; pectoral fins large, broad, falcate, with narrow, pointed or rounded tips. Upper precaudal pit in the form of a shallow longitudinal depression on the dorsal surface of the caudal peduncle. No dermal ridge between dorsal fins.

Dioecious, internal (oviduct) fertilization, internal live bearers. Viviparous, placental. Distinct pairing with embrace.

Synonym (s)
Carcharhinus gangeticus (Muller & Henle, 1839)
(Senior synonym)
Carcharias murrayi Gunther, 1883
(Ambiguous synonym)
Eulamia gangetica (Muller & Henle, 1839)
(Senior synonym)
Platypodon gangeticus (Muller & Henle, 1839)
(Senior synonym)
Carcharias gangeticus Muller & Henle, 1839
(Senior synonym)

Common Name (s)
• Hungar (Bengali)
• Hangar (Bengali)
• Ground Shark (English)
• Gangetic Shark (English)
• Ganges Shark (English)
• Magar Sora (Hindi)
• Tamasi (Kannada)
• Buggakarvai (Kannada)
• Balliar (Kannada)
• Voliya Sravu (Malayalam)
• Waghsheer (Marathi)
• Murdan Sorra (Tamil)
• Sorrah (Telugu)
• Mundah Magur (Oriya)
• Long-tailed Shark (English)
• Bugga-karuvai-baliar (Kannada)
• Valiya Sravu (Malayalam)
• Mundan Sura (Tamil)
• Sorra (Telugu)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial, Dangers
(Subsistence fisheries.
This species is potentially dangerous as well because of its size and large teeth, though its reputation as a man-eater is still unproven. Traumatogenic. )
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(Overfishing, habitat degradation from pollution, increasing river utilization and management, including construction of dams and barrages. It appears to be restricted to a very narrow band of habitat that is heavily impacted by human activity)

Habitat:  Demersal, Estuarine
IUCN Status:  Critically Endangered


• West Bengal, Digha Coast (Lat: 21.61) (Long: 87.53) INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA
• West Bengal (Lat: 21.45) (Long: 87.9) INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Venkataraman, K; Milton, MCJ and Raghuram, KP (2003) Handbook on sharks of Indian waters ZSI, Kolkata 1-113
  • UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre Available at -
  • Rama Rao, KV (1995) Pisces Wetland ecosystem series 1: Fauna of Chilika lake ZSI, Calcutta 483-506 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Zoological Survey of India (Eds) (1991) Animal resources of India (Protozoa to Mammalia) ZSI 1-694 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Chatterjee, TK; Talukdar, RS and Mukherjee, AK (2000) Fish and fisheries of Digha coast of West Bengal Occasional paper no 188 Records of the Zoological Survey of India 31778 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Goswami, BCB (1992) Marine fauna of Digha coast of West Bengal, India Journal of Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 34 115-137 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at -
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 5 Available at -
  • Das, P; De, SP; Bhowmik, RM; Pandit, IK; Sengupta, R; Nandi, AC; Thakurta, SC and Saha, S (2007) Piscine diversity of West Bengal Fishing chimes 27(5) 15-28 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2011-12-28

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