Xiphasia setifer   Swainson,  1839 (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: CSIRO

Size: 53-66 cm.

Color: Yellowish gray with 25-26 broad brownish cross bands on sides, the bands extending on to the dorsal fin. A black spot distally between fifth and sixth dorsal rays and a diffuse elongate blotch between 10th and 14th or 15th dorsal rays. Anal yellowish gray, slightly dusky distally. Pectoral and ventral yellowish gray.

Body elongate, slightly compressed. Head 13.5-13.8 in standard length, 13.9-14.8 in total length. Depth of body 29-31 in standard length, 29.7-32.2 in total length. Eye diameter 3.4-4.2 in head, about equal to snout and 0.6-0.7 in almost flat interorbital space. A single series of slender incisiviform teeth in jaws and a small canine posteriorly in upper and a long curved canine posteriorly in lower jaw. Gill openings restricted, its lower edge slightly above a horizontal from middle ray of pectoral fin. Dorsal and anal fins very long and confluent with caudal fin. Dorsal fin origin over front border of eye; origin of anal fin slightly more than a head length behind head. Ventral fins jugular. A few front dorsal rays as long as head, rays gradually becoming shorter posteriorly. Pectoral fin equal to postorbital length of head. Ventral fin equal to or slightly longer than pectoral fin. Lateral line indistinct, running along upper half of sides and disappearing on tail. Number of spines and rays in the dorsal fin: 120-126; number of spines and rays in the anal fin: 105-116; number of rays in the pectoral fin: 13; number of spines and rays in the ventral fin: 3.

Dioecious, external fertilization, guarders, nesters. Oviparous, distinct pairing. Eggs are demersal and adhesive.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Xiphasia setifer Swainson, 1839
(Senior synonym)
Nemophis lessoni Kaup, 1858
Xiphogadus setifer Gunther, 1862
Xiphasia tachypareia Bleeker, 1865
Xiphogadus madagascariensis Playfair, 1868
Xiphasia setifer Day, 1876
Xiphasia setifer Ramsay and Ogilby, 1886
Nemophis lessoni Sauvage, 1891
Xiphasia setifer Tanaka, 1908
Xiphasia setifer McCulloch, 1922
Xiphasia setifer Barnard, 1927
Xiphasia setifer Herre, 1926
Xiphasia setifer Fowler, 1928
Xiphasia setifer Hugh Smith, 1934
Xiphasia lessoni Hardenberg, 1936
Xiphasia setifer Herre, 1939

Common Name (s)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial

Habitat:  Demersal
Prey:  Crustaceans and fishes


• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands (Lat: 10) (Long: 93) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai Coast INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• Kerala INDIA
• Karnataka, Off Mangalore INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Off Visakhapatnam (Lat: 17.73) (Long: 83.55) INDIA (Record: 04/1989-03/1990) (Depth: 50 mts)

Literature Source(s)
  • Wafar, MVM (2003) Checklists of reef fauna Available at - http://www.reefindia.org/
  • Rao, DV; Devi, K and Rajan, PT (2000) An account of ichthyofauna of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Bay of Bengal Occasional paper no 178 Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI, Calcutta 1-434 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Available at - http://www.itis.gov.
  • Allen, GR and Mohammed, A (2003) Coral Reef Fishes of Indonesia Zoological Studies 42(1) 26299 Available at - Digital Information Resource Center, Pune.
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at - http://www.fishbase.org
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in/PDF/coastal%20data.pdf
  • Jones, S and Kumaran, M (1980) Fishes of the Laccadive Archipelago The Nature Conservation and Aquatic Sciences Service, Trivandrum, Kerala 760 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Beaufort, LF and Chapman, WM (1951) The fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago A. J. Reprints agency, Karol Bagh, New Delhi 9 484 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean; (Fishing area 51). FAO, Rome 1 Available at - http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/ad468e/ad468e00.HTM#Contents
  • Bijukumar, A and Deepthi, GR (2009) Mean trophic index of fish fauna associated with trawl bycatch of Kerala, southwest coast of India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 51(2) 145 - 154 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Murty, VS (1969) Catalogue of fishes (excluding from the Laccadives) in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 10 1-38 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/571/1/Bulletin_10.pdf
  • Sujatha, K (1995) Finfish constituents of trawl by-catch off Visakhapatnam Fishery Technology Society of Fisheries Technologists 32(1) 56-60 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2012-01-03

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