Gazza minuta   (Bloch,  1795) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order:Perciformes
Family:Leiognathidae

Image copyrights: Shao, KT

Description
Size: Maximum 15 cm; common 6 to 10 cm

Color: Back grayish, abdomen silvery; snout black, black dots spread over head and body, spinous dorsal edged black, soft dorsal and anal gray, pectoral base black, caudal edge dusky.

Body is oblong and laterally compressed with dorsal and ventral profiles equally convex. Height 2-2.50, head 2.75-3.50 in length. Eye 3-3.74 in head, with a narrow adipose eyelid equal to or longer than snout and inter orbital space. Exposed part of maxillary about equal to diameter of eye, reaching to below front border of pupil. Snout pointed, mouth when protruded extends horizontally forwards. Teeth conical or canine-like. The minute scales are wanting on head and on a triangular space between pectorals and ventrals, present also on back but deciduous. Scales small all over, including those on breast. Lateral line extends into caudal base. Two small spines on head opposite front border of eye. Nuchal spine is present. Lower margin of preopercle serrate. Ventral does not reach origin of anal; dorsal spines slender and flexible, the second somewhat longer than head without snout, dorsal and anal spines weak, second anal spine somewhat shorter but stronger. Interorbital space divided into two concavities by the premaxillary shaft bounded by two ridges which form the outer edges of nuchal spine. The median portion of nuchal spine not elevated, about 4 in head. Two small spines on top of head, immediately above the eye and opposite its front margin, the outer larger than the inner. The ridge forming the outer boundary of interorbital space arises opposite these spines. Mouth when protracted forms a horizontal tube, gape of mouth opposite lower margin of eye and the tip of maxilla reaches front border of eye. Mouth large, lips thick and broad. Lower margin of lower jaw straight. Preopercle with an obtuse angle, its lower margin finely serrate. Caniniform teeth in uppef and lower jaws, in the former at the symphysis and in the latter on the sides. Gill rakers curved and bent at tips, the spines on inner surface of each gill raker are also curved. Scales small, all over the body, including the breast. Lateral line convex from the origin and is parallel to dorsal profile, extending posteriorly to the base of the caudal fin. Dorsal and anal spines weak, compressed. The third and fourth dorsal spines and third anal spine serrated along the anterior margin to a short distance from base and all the dorsal spines and second and third anal spines bear sculpture along their posterior margins almost for the entire length. Ventrals with axillary scales, their tips not reaching origin of anal. Caudal deeply forked.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.


Synonym (s)
Gazza argentaria Day, 1889
Gazza equulaeformis Day, 1876
Gazza minuta Talwar and Jhingran, 1991
Scomber minuta Bloch, 1797
Equula dispar De Vis, 1884
(Junior synonym)
Equula minuta (Bloch, 1795)
(Senior synonym)
Gazza argentaria (Forster, 1801)
(Junior synonym)
Scomber minutus Bloch, 1797
Zeus argentarius Bloch and Schneider, 1801
Equla minuta Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1835
Gazza minuta Day, 1878
Gazza dispar (De Vis, 1884)
(Junior synonym)
Gazza equulaeformis Ruppell, 1835
(Junior synonym)
Gazza tapeinosoma Bleeker, 1853
(Junior synonym)
Scomber minutus Bloch, 1795
(Senior synonym)
Zeus argentarius Forster, 1801
(Junior synonym)
Gazza equuliformis Bleeker, 1845
Gazza equuliformis Cantor, 1850
Gazza minuta Bleeker, 1851
Gazza argentaria Bleeker, 1863
Equula dentex Kner, 1867
Gazza argentaria Klunzinger, 1871
Gazza argentaria Gunther, 1876
Leiognathus (Gazza) minutus Bleeker, 1879
Gazza argentaria Klunzinger, 1884
Gazza equulaeformis Jordan and Evermann, 1902
Gazza minuta Fowler, 1904
Gazza minuta Evermann and Seale, 1907
Gazzae quulaeformis Gilchrist and Thompson, 1908
Gazza minuta Seale, 1910
Gazza argentaria M. Weber, 1913
Gazza minuta Jordan and Starks, 1917
Gazza minuta Barnard, 1927
Gazza minuta Fowler, 1928
Gazza aequulaeformis Day, 1878
Gaza minuta (Bloch, 1795)
(Misspelling)
Gazza equulasformis Ruppell, 1835
(Misspelling)
Gazza equuleformis Ruppell, 1835
(Misspelling)

Common Name (s)
• Tooth Pony (English)
• Toothed Ponyfish (English)
• Silver Bellies (English)
• Kurichi (Kannada)
• Guruku (Kannada)
• Moda Mullan (Malayalam)
• Karal (Malayalam)
• Mullan (Malayalam)
• Kap (Marathi)
• Karai (Tamil)
• Kaaral (Tamil)
• Pasni-pare (Tamil)
• Namakaral (Tamil)
• Kotoo Kara (Tamil)
• Karaipodi (Tamil)
• Kalikaral (Tamil)
• Sudupunam Karal (Tamil)
• Sudpunam Karal (Tamil)
• Kalaikaral (Tamil)
• Karah (Telugu)
• Komah Karah (Telugu)
• Kuthippu karal
• Toothpony
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Marketed fresh or dried, also used to be fish meal for duck and chicken food)

Ecology
Habitat:  Demersal, Estuarine, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Secondary Consumer
Prey:  Small fishes, shrimps, other crustaceans, and polychaetes, Copepods, and pteropods like Creseis
Predator:  Bony fishes (Megalaspis cordyla, Saurida tumbil, Trichiurus lepturus)

Biogeography


• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands (Lat: 10) (Long: 93) INDIA
• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh (Lat: 22.6) (Long: 69.5) INDIA
• Orissa, Mahanadi Estuary (Lat: 20.32) (Long: 86.75) INDIA
• West Bengal, Digha Coast (Lat: 21.61) (Long: 87.53) INDIA
• MYANMAR
• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA
• INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands INDIA
• Kerala, Ponnani Estuary INDIA (Record: 03/1997-02/1999)
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai Coast INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kalpeni INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Suheli INDIA
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• Red Sea
• SRI LANKA
• Orissa, Chilika INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Kerala, Off Kochi INDIA (Record: 03/1954-07/1955)
• Palk Bay INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Ramanathapuram INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA (Record: 1948-1950)
• Tamil Nadu, Mandapam INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Kovalam INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Porto Novo INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Off Visakhapatnam (Lat: 17.73) (Long: 83.55) INDIA (Record: 04/1989-03/1990) (Depth: 50 mts)
• Tamil Nadu INDIA
• West Bengal (Lat: 21.45) (Long: 87.9) INDIA
• Maharashtra, Malvan (Lat: 16.07) (Long: 73.47) INDIA

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