Polycyathus verrilli   Duncan,  1889 (Hard Coral)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Cnidaria
Class: Anthozoa
Order:Scleractinia
Family:Caryophylliidae

Description
Colonial about 5 cm spread. Corallites close together, initial settlement composed of isolated solitary calices. Corallites 2-3 mm in diameter, 6-8 mm height (except one corallites 5 mm in diameter). Septa in 3 cycles with a few of the IV in larger corallites. Total number of septa 30-36. All septa exsert, primaries the maximum, exsert parts vertical, edges entire, side granular. First two cycles of septa reach the columella often with a few of the third. Pali in front of the first 3 cycles of septa those of the primary and tertiary septa subequal, those of the second cycle larger and with an incision, total pali up to 20. Columella with 10-12 vertical papillae standing below the level of the pali, concave. Costae recognisable at the distal part of the corallites with a row of granules.


Synonym (s)
Polycyathus verrilli Duncan, 1889

Common Name (s)
Economic Importance and Threats
Threats:  Natural threats, Anthropogenic
(Protected under Indian Wild Life Protection Act, 1972)

Ecology
Habitat:  Reef Associated

Biogeography


• Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Lat: 10) (Long: 93) INDIA
• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh (Lat: 22.6) (Long: 69.5) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Mandapam INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Tuticorin INDIA
• MALDIVES
• INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Koswari Island (Lat: 8.86) (Long: 78.21) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Mandapam, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Palk Bay INDIA
• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh INDIA
• Palk Bay INDIA
• Gujarat, Mahuva INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Lat: 14) (Long: 94) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Lat: 8.53) (Long: 92.5) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Manauli Island INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Shingle Island INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pullivasal Island INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Hare Island INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pulli Island INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Krusadai Island INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Mandapam INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, New Islet Island INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Krusadai Island (Lat: 9.25) (Long: 79.2) INDIA (Record: 03/2005-05/2005)

Literature Source(s)
  • Wafar, MVM (2003) Checklists of reef fauna Available at - http://www.reefindia.org/
  • Tikadar, BK; Daniel, A and Subbarao, NV (1986) Sea shore animals of Andaman and Nicobar Islands The Director, ZSI, Kolkatta 188 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre Available at - http://www.unep-wcmc.org/
  • Venkatraman, K; Srinivasan, M; Satyanarayana, CH and Prabhakar D (2002) Faunal diversity of Gulf of Mannar biosphere reserve Conservation area series 15 ZSI 77 pp; VIII pla Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Coral reefs species in India Available at - http://envfor.nic.in/icrmn/species/species.html
  • Cairns, DS; Hoeksema, WB and Derland, JV (1999) List of extant stony corals Atoll Research Bulletin National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C, U. S. A 459 13-46 Available at - NIO, RC, Kochi
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Edward, JKP; Patterson, J; Venkatesh M; Mathews, G; Chellaram, C and Wilhelmsson D (2004) A field guide to stony corals (Scleractinia) of Tuticorin in Gulf of Mannar, southeast coast of India SDMRI special research publication no. 4 SDMRI, Tuticorin, India 80 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Pillai, CSG (1969) Stony corals of the seas around India Proceedings of the Symposium on corals and coral reefs Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 191-216 Available at - NIO RC, Kochi
  • Pillai, CSG and Patel, MI (1988) Scleractinian corals from the Gulf Of Kutch Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin, India 30 (1&2) 54-74 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Indian Wild Life Protection Act, 1972
  • Raghunathan, C; Gupta, SR; Wangikar, U and Lakhmapurkar, J (2004) A record of live corals along the Saurashtra coast of Gujarat, Arabian Sea Current Science Current Science Association and Indian Academy of Sciences 87(8) 1131-1138 Available at - http://www.ias.ac.in/currsci/oct252004/1131.pdf
  • Pillai, CSG (1983) Coral reefs and their environs Bulletin Of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 34 36-43 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/995/1/Bulletin_No_34-6.pdf
  • James, PSBR ; Thomas, PA ; Pillai, CSG and Achari Kumaraswamy, GP (1969) ´╗┐Catalogue of types and of sponges, corals, polychaetes, crabs and echinoderms in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 7 1-66 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/567/1/Bulletin_7.pdf
  • Pillai, CSG (1971) Composition of the coral fauna of the southeastern coast of India and the Laccadives Symposium of the zoological society of London 28 301-327 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/6215/1/601.pdf
  • Pillai, CSG (1969) The distribution of corals on a reef at Mandapam (Palk bay), S. India Journal of the marine biological association of India The marine biological association of India 11(1&2) 62-72 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Sukumaran, S; George, RM and Kasinathan, C (2007) Biodiversity and community structure of coral reefs around Krusadai Island, Gulf of Mannar, India Indian Journal of Fisheries Indian Council of Agricultural Research 54(3) 275-282 Available at - http://epubs.icar.org.in/ejournal/index.php/IJF/article/view/6940/2673

Page last updated on:2012-02-10

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