Eupleurogrammus muticus   (Gray,  1831) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: CAFS

Size: 60-100 cm.

Color: Color of fresh specimens steely blue with metallic reflections, becoming silvery gray after death. Dorsal fin membrane semi-transparent, both dorsal and ventral sides of posterior part of fin black; dermal flap of upper jaw black, dermal flap of lower jaw black above and grey below.

Body extremely elongate, compressed and tapering to a point. Mouth large with a dermal flap at tip of each jaw; 2 or 3 (mostly 3) fangs (usually without barbs) in upper jaw, no fangs at tip of lower jaw, a single series of sharp compressed lateral teeth in both jaws. Eye small, its diameter 6.0 to 8.0 times in head length, located far from dorsal profile of head; lower hind margin of gill cover convex. Dorsal fin with 3 spines and 139 to 147 soft rays, running from behind head to almost end of body. Anal fin reduced to minute spinules buried in skin originating beneath 41st to 43rd dorsal fin ray. Pectoral fins about as large as snout, with 1 spine and 12 soft rays. Caudal fin absent. Pelvic fins present but reduced to a scale-like process. Lateral line running almost straight along midbody or slightly nearer the ventral contour. Anus small.

Synonym (s)
Trichiurus muticus (Gray, 1831)
Trichiurus muticus Gray, 1831
(Senior synonym)
Eupleurogrammus muticus Gray, 1831
Trichiurus lepturus (part) Linnaeus, 1758
Eupleurogrammus muticus James, 1957
Eupleurogramnus muticus (Gray, 1831)

Common Name (s)
• Small Head Hair Tail (English)
• Gray's ribbonfish (English)
• Hair tail (English)
• Ribbon fish (English)
• Pambole (Kannada)
• Karuppusavala (Malayalam)
• Karupputhalayan (Malayalam)
• Thalayan (Malayalam)
• Vada (Malayalam)
• Vellasavala (Malayalam)
• Vellathalayan (Malayalam)
• Bala (Marathi)
• Pitiurkti (Marathi)
• Pitiwagti (Marathi)
• Chavalai (Tamil)
• Karthigaivalai (Tamil)
• Mattachavalai (Tamil)
• Olavalai (Tamil)
• Kothisavallu (Telugu)
• Nadippussavallu (Telugu)
• Peddasavallu (Telugu)
• Savallu (Telugu)
• Yellasavallu (Telugu)
• Smallhead Hairtail
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Marketed mainly in dried and salted forms (sometimes fresh or frozen), mixed with other trichiurids.)

Habitat:  Bentho Pelagic, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Secondary Consumer
Prey:  Small fishes, squids and crustaceans


• West Bengal, Kiagoria INDIA (Record: 1981-1982)
• West Bengal, Digha Coast (Lat: 21.61) (Long: 87.53) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai Coast INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Orissa INDIA
• Maharashtra, Mumbai INDIA
• West Bengal, Hugli Matla Estuary INDIA
• West Bengal, Sunderbans INDIA
• Orissa Coast INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh Coast INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai INDIA
• Gujarat Coast INDIA
• West Bengal, Digha Ghole (Lat: 21.61) (Long: 87.53) INDIA (Record: 1981-1982)
• Andhra Pradesh, Kakinada INDIA
• West Bengal (Lat: 21.45) (Long: 87.9) INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Visakhapatnam Coast INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • (2001) Fauna of Godavari estuary, Andhra Pradesh Estuarine ecosystem series 4 ZSI, Kolkata 1-166 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • Chatterjee, TK; Talukdar, RS and Mukherjee, AK (2000) Fish and fisheries of Digha coast of West Bengal Occasional paper no 188 Records of the Zoological Survey of India 31778 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Kuronuma, K and Abe, Y (1986) Fishes of the Arabian Gulf Fishes of the Arabian Gulf 1-356 Available at - ZOOR12500001320
  • Goswami, BCB (1992) Marine fauna of Digha coast of West Bengal, India Journal of Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 34 115-137 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at -
  • Tun, MT (2001) Marine fishes of Myanmar (pelagic and demersal) U Than Tun, Director-General, Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries, Myanmar 276 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Bal, DV and Rao, KV (1984) Marine fisheries Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited 470 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at -
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at -
  • Talwar, PK and Kacker, RK (1984) Commercial sea fishes of India ZSI, Calcutta 997 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 4 Available at -
  • Fischer, W and Whitehead, PJP (1974) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Eastern Indian Ocean - Fishing Area 57 and Western Central Pacific - Fishing Area 71 FAO, Rome 4 Available at -
  • James, PSBR (1973) The ribbon-fish resources of India Proceedings of the symposium on living resources of the seas around India CMFRI-Cochin 434-438 Available at -
  • Manna, B and Goswami, BCB (1985) A check-list of marine and estuarine fishes of Digha, West Bengal, India Mahasagar- Bulletin of the National Institute of Oceanography NIO, Goa 18(4) 489-499 Available at -
  • Murty, VS (1969) Catalogue of fishes (excluding from the Laccadives) in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 10 1-38 Available at -
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at -
  • Biswas, KP (2009) Fishes around Indian Ocean Dominant Fish Groups Occurring in Indian Coasts Daya publishing house Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Das, P; De, SP; Bhowmik, RM; Pandit, IK; Sengupta, R; Nandi, AC; Thakurta, SC and Saha, S (2007) Piscine diversity of West Bengal Fishing chimes 27(5) 15-28 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Biswas, KP (2009) Fishes around Indian Ocean Dominant Fish Groups Occurring in Indian Coasts Daya publishing house Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Biswas, KP (2009) Fishes around Indian Ocean Coastal Fishery Resources in Countries Bordering Indian Ocean Daya publishing house Available at - NIO,Goa

Page last updated on:2012-01-12

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