Escualosa thoracata   (Valenciennes,  1847) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Randall, JE

Size: 5-20 cm SL

Body is deep and compressed with strongly keeled belly. Nearly 17 pre-pelvic and 10 post-pelvic scutes present. Mouth is terminal in position with slightly notched upper jaw. 12 branched rays are present in dorsal fin and 14 in anal fin. Pelvic fin has 7 rays. Second supra-maxilla almost rectangular and the bright silver stripe along the flank distinguish it from juveniles of Sardinella, Amblygaster and Herklotsichthys.

Dioecism, fertilization external, oviparous, nonguarders, open water/substratum egg scatterers.

Max. reported age: 1 years

Synonym (s)
Clupea lile Valanciennes, 1847
Escualosa thoracata Day, 1878
Kowala coval Misra, 1973
Kowala thoracata Valenciennes, 1847
Alausa champil Cantor, 1850
(Junior synonym)
Clupea argyrotaenia (Bleeker, 1852)
(Junior synonym)
Clupea coval Cuvier, 1829
(Ambiguous synonym)
Clupea huae Tirant, 1883
(Junior synonym)
Clupea macrolepis Steindachner, 1879
(Junior synonym)
Escualosa thoracata (Valenciennes, 1847)
(Senior synonym)
Kowala coval Cuvier, 1829
(Junior synonym)
Kowala thoracata Valenciennes, 1847
(Senior synonym)
Meletta lile Valenciennes, 1847
(Junior synonym)
Rogenia argijrotaenia Bleeker, 1851
(Junior synonym)
Rogenia argyrotaenia Bleeker, 1852
(Junior synonym)
Clupeoides lile (Valenciennes, 1847)
Clupoides lile (Valenciennes, 1847)

Common Name (s)
• White Sardine (English)
• Swadi (Kannada)
• Berza (Kannada)
• Bhilgee (Marathi)
• Vellikasu (Tamil)
• Mattileesi (Tamil)
• Bhanjee (Gujarati)
• Motwa (Gujarati)
• Berza (Kannada)
• Swadi balanjil (Kannada)
• Choodah (Malayalam)
• Veloori (Malayalam)
• Bhiljee (Marathi)
• Bhitgi (Marathi)
• Choodah (Tamil)
• Vellikasu (Tamil)
• Kavallu (Telugu)
• Dhalakakiti
• Matta konthan
• Bhanjo
• Morva
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Marketed fresh and dried-salted.)

Habitat:  Pelagic, Estuarine
Trophic Level:  Secondary Consumer
Prey:  Zooplankton (copepods, crab zoea, larvae of bivalves and fish eggs) and phytoplankton


• Orissa, Mahanadi Estuary (Lat: 20.32) (Long: 86.75) INDIA
• Orissa, Jambu Island (Lat: 20.42) (Long: 86.72) INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai Coast INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Kerala, Ponnani Estuary INDIA (Record: 03/1997-02/1999)
• Orissa, Chilika INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Kerala INDIA
• West Bengal INDIA
• Orissa INDIA
• Kerala, Kochi INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Gujarat INDIA
• West Bengal (Lat: 21.45) (Long: 87.9) INDIA
• Karnataka, Karwar Coast INDIA
• Karnataka, Karwar Coast INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Rao, DV; Devi, K and Rajan, PT (2000) An account of ichthyofauna of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Bay of Bengal Occasional paper no 178 Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI, Calcutta 1-434 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Khan, RA (2003) Fish faunal resources of Sunderban estuarine system with special reference to the biology of some commercially important species Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI, Kolkata 1-149 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Rama Rao, KV (1995) Pisces Wetland ecosystem series 1: Fauna of Chilika lake ZSI, Calcutta 483-506 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Zoological Survey of India (Eds.) (1998) Fauna Of Mahanadi estuary, Orissa Estuarine ecosystem series no 3 ZSI, Kolkata 1-218 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • (2001) Fauna of Godavari estuary, Andhra Pradesh Estuarine ecosystem series 4 ZSI, Kolkata 1-166 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • Talwar, PK and Kacker, RK (1984) Commercial sea fishes of India ZSI, Calcutta 997 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Mishra, SS; Pradhan, P; Kar, S and Chakraborty, SK (2003) Records of the Zoological Survey of India: Ichthyofaunal diversity of Midnapore, Bankura and Hooghly districts, south west Bengal ZSI, Kolkata 65 pp Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Hajisamae, S; Chou, LM and Ibrahim, S (2004) Feeding habits and trophic relationships of fishes utilizing an impacted coastal habitat, Singapore Hydrobiologia 520 61-71 Available at - Zoological Records
  • Sanaullah, M and Chowdhuty, MZA (1992) A check list of the fishes of the Maheskhali Channel, Coxs Bazar Bangladesh Journal of Zoology 20(1) 191-197 Available at - Zoological Records (Bangladesh)
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at -
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at -
  • Bijukumar, A and Sushama, S (2000) Ichthyofauna of Ponnani estuary, Kerala Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 42(1&2) 182-189 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at -
  • Satapathy, D and Panda, S (2009) Fish atlas of Chilika Chilika Development Authority, Bhubaneswar 74 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Dr. Kumaraguru, AK (2000) Studies on socioeconomics of Coral Reef resource users in the Gulf of Mannar coast, South India Centre for Marine and Coastal studies School of Energy, Environment and Natural Resources Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, India Available at -
  • Bijukumar, A and Deepthi, GR (2009) Mean trophic index of fish fauna associated with trawl bycatch of Kerala, southwest coast of India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 51(2) 145 - 154 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Ramani, K; Ammini, PL; Srinivasan, J; Najeemudeen, SH; Beena, MR; George, KP; Seynudeen, MB; Subbaraman, G; Anandan, K; Khambadkar, LL; Augustine, SK; Pugazhendi, D; Rudhramurthy, N; Subramani, S; Seetharaman, S; Batcha, HK and Sankaralingam, S (2010) An overview of marine fisheries in India during 2007 Marine Fisheries Information Service CMFRI, Kochi 203 1-14 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Whitehead, PJP (1972) A synopsis of the clupeoid fishes of India Journal of the marine biological association of India The marine biological association of India 14(1) 160-256 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Sabu, S; Gibinkumar, TR; Pravin, P and Boopendranath, MR (2011) Performance evaluation of bigeye bycatch reduction device in the seas off Cochin, India Fishery technology Society of fisheries technologists 48(1) 41-50 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Talwar, PK (1990) Fishes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands: A synoptic survey Journal of the Andaman Science Association Andaman Science Association, Port Blair 6(2) 71-102 Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at -
  • Dholakia, AD (2004) Marine resources Fisheries and aquatic resources of India Daya publishing house 271-303 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Das, P; De, SP; Bhowmik, RM; Pandit, IK; Sengupta, R; Nandi, AC; Thakurta, SC and Saha, S (2007) Piscine diversity of West Bengal Fishing chimes 27(5) 15-28 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Biswas, KP (2009) Fishes around Indian Ocean Dominant Fish Groups Occurring in Indian Coasts Daya publishing house Available at - NIO,Goa

Page last updated on:2012-01-11

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