Conus figulinus   Linnaeus,  1758 (Sea Snail)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
Order:Neogastropoda
Family:Conidae

Description
Size: 45-135 mm

Color: Ground colour varies from yellowish or orangish cream through reddish to greyish or blackish brown, often found with pale band in shoulder.

Moderately large, solid to heavy, highly calcarious. Last whorl ventricosely conical to broadly ventricosely conical or slightly pyriform; outline convex adapically, straight or slightly concave towards base, left side consistently sigmoid. Shoulder rounded. Spire usually low, outline variably sigmoid or concave. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly convex, with many spiral striae. Last whorl with variably pronounced and spaced spiral grooves on basal third, separating ribs and ribbons. Periostracum is thick opaque, dark brown, with raised transverse ridges corresponding in position to the dark transverse lines on the shell.


Synonym (s)
Conus lucirensis Paes Da Franca, 1957

Common Name (s)
• Figulinus Cone (English)
• Fig Cone
Economic Importance and Threats

Ecology
Habitat:  Benthic, Rocky, Sandy, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Secondary Consumer
Prey:  Polychaetes

Biogeography


• Kerala, Vazhakala (Lat: 10.03) (Long: 76.28) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Parangipettai Coast (Lat: 11.48) (Long: 79.77) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Parangipettai Coast (Lat: 11.48) (Long: 79.77) INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai INDIA
• Pondicherry INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Cuddalore INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pazhayar INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pamban INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Tuticorin INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Parangipettai Coast INDIA
• Maharashtra, Nariman Point INDIA (Record: 12/2006-11/2007)
• Gujarat, Dwarka INDIA
• Gujarat, Veraval INDIA
• Daman and Diu, Diu INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Parangipettai INDIA
• Maharashtra, Mumbai (Lat: 18.9) (Long: 72.78) INDIA (Record: 12/2006-11/2007)
• Maharashtra, Mumbai (Lat: 19.15) (Long: 72.93) INDIA (Record: 12/2006-11/2007)
• Tamil Nadu, Cuddalore (Lat: 11.7) (Long: 79.8) INDIA (Record: 12/03/2004) (Depth: 30 mts)
• Gujarat, Saurashtra INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Subba Rao, NV (2003) Indian seashells Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI, Kolkata (Part 1) 416 pp Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Tikadar, BK; Daniel, A and Subbarao, NV (1986) Sea shore animals of Andaman and Nicobar Islands The Director, ZSI, Kolkatta 188 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • Apte,D (1998) The book of Indian shells Oxford University Press 115
  • (2001) Invertebrate zoology collections Available at - http://goode.si.edu/mcs/iz/Query.php
  • Subba Rao, NV and Dey, A (2000) Catalogue of marine molluscs of Andaman and Nicobar Islands Occasional paper no 187 Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI 1-323 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Rajagopal, S; Khan, SA; Srinivasan, M and Shanmugam, A (1998) Gastropods of Parangipettai coast Annamalai University 38 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • OBIS Indo-Pacific molluscan database Available at - http://clade.ansp.org/obis/find_mollusk.html
  • Ganesh, T; Raman, AV and Rao, KVS (2006) New records of marine molluscs from the northeast coast of India, Bay of Bengal Journal of the Bomaby Natural History Society BNHS, India 103(1) 29-33 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Kasinathan, R; Singarawadivelan, G and Saminathan, R (1997) Venomous cone snails of southeast coast of India 1 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Kohn, AJ The Conus Biodiversity website Available at - http://biology.burke.washington.edu/conus/index.php
  • Eddie, H Hardy's internet guide to marine gastropods Available at - http://www.gastropods.com/
  • Datta, SN; Chakraborty, SK; Jaiswar, AK and Venkateshvaran, K (2008) Temporal and spatial differences in species diversity in the intertidal region of south Mumbai Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin, India 50(1) 29-37 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Raghunathan, C; Gupta, SR; Wangikar, U and Lakhmapurkar, J (2004) A record of live corals along the Saurashtra coast of Gujarat, Arabian Sea Current Science Current Science Association and Indian Academy of Sciences 87(8) 1131-1138 Available at - http://www.ias.ac.in/currsci/oct252004/1131.pdf
  • Saravan, R; Sambasivam, S, Shanmugam, A, Kumar, SD; Vanan, TT and Nazeer, RA (2009) Isolation, purification and biochemical characterization of conotoxin from Conus figulinus Linneaus(1758) Indian Journal of Biotehnology National Institute of Science Communication 8 266-271 Available at - http://nopr.niscair.res.in/bitstream/123456789/4738/1/IJBT%208%283%29%20266-271.pdf
  • Sealifebase Available at - http://www.sealifebase.org/
  • Datta, SN; Chakraborty, SK; Jaiswar, AK and Ziauddin, G. (2010) A comparative study on intertidal faunal biodiversity of selected beaches of Mumbai coast Journal of Environmental Biology Academy of Environmental Biology, India, 31(6) 981-986 Available at - www.jeb.co.in/journal_issues/201011_nov10/paper_15.pdf
  • Franklin, JB; Fernando, SA; Chalke, BA; Krishnan, KS (2007) Radular morphology of Conus (Gastropoda: Caenogastropoda: Conidae) from India Molluscan Research Magnolia Press 27(3) 111–122 Available at - http://www.mapress.com/mr/content/v27/2007f/n3p122.pdf
  • Sundaram, KS; Sarvesan, R; Mohamed, KH and Shanbhogue, SL (1969) Catalogue of molluscs, prawns, stomatopods and marine algae in the reference collections of the central marine fisheries research institute Bulletin Of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 9 1-52 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/570/1/Bulletin_9.pdf
  • Dholakia, AD (2004) Marine resources Fisheries and aquatic resources of India Daya publishing house 271-303 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2011-10-24

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