Epinephelus undulosus   (Quoy and Gaimard,  1824) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Randall, J.E.

Size: 36-122 cm.

Weight: 6.4 kg.

Color: Overall color is purplish gray to brownish gray, with brown to golden-brown dots on the head and wavy longitudinal lines of the same color on the dorsal part of the body, spinous dorsal fin with narrow black margin.

Height 2.8, 3.5 in length with caudal. Head 2.5, 3.1 in length with caudal. Eye 5.4, equal to interorbital space and i.5 in snout. Lower jaw projecting. Mouth oblique, maxillary reaching about to below posterior border of eye, the width of its distal extremity 1.6 in diameter of eye. Teeth in narrow bands, the inner depressible series in the mandibles and those near symphysis in upper jaw slightly longer than others. An outer row of fixed teeth in both jaws, ending in a rather well developed but short canine. Praeoperculum evenly serrated behind, the angle, which is more or less produced, with 2 to 5 strong teeth. Middle opercular spine slightly nearer to lower than to upper one, which last in very small. Gillrakers long and slender, longer than gill-fringes, about 20 and some rudiments on lower part of anterior arch. Dorsal originating above base of pectorals, second spine slightly shorter than third and fourth, which are the longest and more than one third of length of head, as long as or longer than soft dorsal rays, much longer than last dorsal spine. Second anal spine somewhat shorter than third, which is shorter than second dorsal spine and much shorter than longest soft anal rays. Pectorals equal to postorbital part of head. Ventrals somewhat longer. Caudal truncate or slightly emarginate. Scales ciliated.
Interorbital space convex, preopercle angular, with a notch above the corner and the serrae enlarged, upper edge of the operculum straight or slightly concave, nostrils subequal or the posterior ones slightly enlarged, maxilla reaches to vertical at rear edge of the eye, adults with a prominent knob or hook-like process on the ventral edge of the maxilla (covered by the upper-lip).

Fertilization external, Oviparous

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Bodianus undulosus Quoy & Gaimard, 1824
Serranus lineatus Gunther, 1859
Epinephelus amboinensis Bleeker, 1865
Epinephelus lineatus Bleeker, 1873
Epinephelus undulosus Bleeker, 1876
Serranus undulosus Day, 1888
Epinephelus undulosus Boulenger, 1895
Serranus undulosus Fowler, 1928
Cephalopholis undulosus (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824)
Serranus amboinensis Bleeker, 1852
Serranus lineatus Valenciennes, 1828

Common Name (s)
• Wavy Lined Grouper (English)
• Midwater Grouper (English)
• Brown Lined Reefcod (English)
• Hekaru (Marathi)
• Gobra (Marathi)
• Panju kalava
• Wavylined Grouper
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Marketed fresh or frozen, Ornamental fish)
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(The major threat is overfishing.)

Habitat:  Muddy, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Secondary Consumer
Prey:  Small fishes, crustaceans (stomatopods), shrimps, and pelagic tunicates (Thalia and Pyrosoma sp.)
IUCN Status:  Data Deficient


• Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Tamil Nadu INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, North Reef Island INDIA
• Palk Bay INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Tuticorin INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Off Visakhapatnam (Lat: 17.73) (Long: 83.55) INDIA (Record: 04/1989-03/1990) (Depth: 50 mts)

Literature Source(s)
  • Rao, DV; Devi, K and Rajan, PT (2000) An account of ichthyofauna of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Bay of Bengal Occasional paper no 178 Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI, Calcutta 1-434 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Balasubramanian, T Lagoons of India Environmental Information System Centre, Envis Publication Series: 3/2001 105 pp Available at - http://aucasmbenvis.org/files/04-Publications/lagoon%20status.pdf
  • Hussain, SM Brief report on biodiversity in the coastal areas of Pakistan p 113
  • Ohman, M; Rajasuriya, A and Olafsson, E (1997) Reef fish assemblages in north western Sri Lanka: Distribution patterns and influences of fishing practises Enviornmental Biology of Fishes Kluwer Academic Publishers 49 45-61
  • Allen, GR and Mohammed, A (2003) Coral Reef Fishes of Indonesia Zoological Studies 42(1) 26299 Available at - Digital Information Resource Center, Pune.
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at - http://www.fishbase.org
  • Tun, MT (2001) Marine fishes of Myanmar (pelagic and demersal) U Than Tun, Director-General, Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries, Myanmar 276 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Weber, M; Beaufort, LF (1931) The fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago Print times, Pataudi house, Daryaganj, New Delhi 6 448 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Sujatha, K (2004) Groupers off Visakhapatnam, northeast coast of India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 46(1) 87-92 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in
  • Talwar, PK and Kacker, RK (1984) Commercial sea fishes of India ZSI, Calcutta 997 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 4 Available at - http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/ad468e/ad468e00.HTM#Contents
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at - http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  • Dr. Kumaraguru, AK (2000) Studies on socioeconomics of Coral Reef resource users in the Gulf of Mannar coast, South India Centre for Marine and Coastal studies School of Energy, Environment and Natural Resources Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, India Available at - http://planningcommission.nic.in/reports/sereport/ser/stdy_coral.pdf
  • Rao, GC; Rao, DV and Devi, K (1994) A faunal exploration of the North Reef Island sanctuary, North Andaman Journal of the Andaman Science Association Andaman Science Association, Port Blair 10(1&2) 68-81 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Murty, VS (1996) Marine ornamental fishes of India Proceedings of the Seminar on Fisheries - A Multibillion Dollar Industry, Madras CMFRI 23-34 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/7786/1/678-Mur.pdf
  • Murty, VS (1969) Catalogue of fishes (excluding from the Laccadives) in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 10 1-38 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/571/1/Bulletin_10.pdf
  • James, PSBR; Lazarius, S and Arumugam, G (1994) The present status of 'Major Perch' fisheries in India Perch fisheries in India Bulletin Of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 47 1-9 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/8218/1/Bulletin_No_47.pdf
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at - eprints.cmfri.org.in/3975/1/Special_Publication_No_12_Revised.pdf
  • Sujatha, K (1995) Finfish constituents of trawl by-catch off Visakhapatnam Fishery Technology Society of Fisheries Technologists 32(1) 56-60 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2011-12-30

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