Conus betulinus   Linnaeus,  1758 (Sea Snail)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Gastropoda

Size: 55-177 mm

Color: Yellowish tan to orangish brown, with widely spaced transverse rows of dark brown dots; spire yellow with brown spots, aperture white, edge of the outer lip yellow.

Moderately large to large, solid to heavy. Last whorl ventricosely conical to broadly and ventricosely conical, less frequently conical, broadly conical or approaching pyriform; outline usually straight at abapical two-thirds and convex to strongly convex above, sometimes slightly concave near base. Shoulder subangulate to rounded. Spire of low to moderate height, outline variably concave. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly convex, with numerous spiral striae. Basal third of last whorl with variably broad spiral ribs.

Synonym (s)
Conus betulinus rufoluteus Bozzetti & Ferrario, 2005
Conus betulinus var. alternans Dautzenberg, 1937
Conus betulinus var. immaculata Dautzenberg, 1906
Conus betulinus var. paucimaculata Dautzenberg, 1937
Conus betulinus var. plurizonata Dautzenberg, 1937
Conus betulinus var. scripta Dautzenberg, 1937
Conus betulinus var. tabulata Dautzenberg, 1937
Conus deprehendens Prelle, 2009
Conus zulu Petuch, 1979
Cucullus medusae Roding, 1798

Common Name (s)
• Beech Cone (English)
• Betulinus Cone
Economic Importance and Threats

Habitat:  Reef Associated,Rocky,Sandy,Muddy
Trophic Level:  Secondary Consumer
Prey:  Feeds on worms


• Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Lat: 10) (Long: 93) INDIA
• Kerala, Trivandrum INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Parangipettai Coast (Lat: 11.48) (Long: 79.77) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai INDIA
• Pondicherry INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Cuddalore INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pazhayar INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Tharangambadi INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Nagapattinam INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Tuticorin INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Parangipettai Coast INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Mandapam (Lat: 9.2) (Long: 79.1) INDIA (Record: 05/03/2003) (Depth: 30 mts)
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar (Lat: 9.2) (Long: 79.1) INDIA (Record: 05/03/2003) (Depth: 30 mts)
• Tamil Nadu, Keezha Karai INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Subba Rao, NV (2003) Indian seashells Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI, Kolkata (Part 1) 416 pp Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Apte,D (1998) The book of Indian shells Oxford University Press 115
  • Venkatraman, K; Srinivasan, M; Satyanarayana, CH and Prabhakar D (2002) Faunal diversity of Gulf of Mannar biosphere reserve Conservation area series 15 ZSI 77 pp; VIII pla Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Rajagopal, S; Khan, SA; Srinivasan, M and Shanmugam, A (1998) Gastropods of Parangipettai coast Annamalai University 38 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • OBIS Indo-Pacific molluscan database Available at -
  • Fernando, AS and Fernando, OJ (2002) A field guide to the common invertebrates of the east coast of India Centre of Advanced Study in Marine Biology 1-258 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Kasinathan, R; Singarawadivelan, G and Saminathan, R (1997) Venomous cone snails of southeast coast of India 1 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Kohn, AJ The Conus Biodiversity website Available at -
  • Paganelli, G Available at -
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Kurian, CV (1953) A preliminary survey of the bottom fauna and bottom deposits of the Travancore coast within the 15-fathom line Proceedings of the National Institute of Sciences of India 19 746–775 Available at -
  • Franklin, JB; Fernando, SA; Chalke, BA; Krishnan, KS (2007) Radular morphology of Conus (Gastropoda: Caenogastropoda: Conidae) from India Molluscan Research Magnolia Press 27(3) 111–122 Available at -
  • Sundaram, KS; Sarvesan, R; Mohamed, KH and Shanbhogue, SL (1969) Catalogue of molluscs, prawns, stomatopods and marine algae in the reference collections of the central marine fisheries research institute Bulletin Of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 9 1-52 Available at -

Page last updated on:2011-03-11

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