Epinephelus polyphekadion   (Bleeker,  1849) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Trevor, M.

Size: 36-90 cm.

Weight: 10-15 kg.

Color: In alcohol specimens brown, dotted with dark brown, including the fins. a dark patch on the back of the caudal peduncle and sometimes also on the back below dorsal fin.

Height 2.6-3.1, 3.2-3.8 in length with caudal. Head 2.2, 2.6 in length with caudal. Eye 5.5-6.3 in head, 1.1-1.3 in snout. interorbital space 1.2-1.7 in diameter of eye. Maxillary scaly, reaching beyond hindborder of eye or not so far, its width at distal extremity 1.3-1.7 in diameter of eye. Praeopercular border rounded, the serrae at its angle very much enlarged. Middle opercular spine nearer to lower than to upper, lower not further back than upper. Opercular flap obtusely pointed. Gillrakers 10-11 on lower part of anterior arch, much shorter than filaments. Teeth in two rows on sides of mandibles. Fourth dorsal spine longest, 3-3.2 in head, somewhat shorter than longest, 3-3.2 in head, somewhat shorter than longest soft dorsal rays. Last dorsal spine 1.1-1.3 in longest dorsal spine. Second anal spine equal to or somewhat longer than third one, somewhat shorter than last dorsal spine and much shorter than soft anal rays. Pectorals equal to distance between eye and middle opercular spine. Ventrals shorter. Caudal rounded. scales cycloid on head, feebly ctenoid or cycloid on body.

Protogynous, external fertilization, nonguarders, open water/substratum egg scatterers.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Serranus polyphekadion Bleeker, 1849
Serranus goldmani Bleeker, 1855
(Junior synonym)
Serranus polyphekadion Gunther, 1859
Epinephelus polyphekadion Boulenger, 1895
Epinephelus goldmani (Bleeker, 1855)
(Junior synonym)
Epinephelus microdon (Bleeker, 1856)
(Junior synonym)
Serranus dispar var. b Playfair, 1867
(Ambiguous synonym)
Serranus microdon Bleeker, 1856
(Junior synonym)
Serranus polyphekadion Bleeker, 1849
(Senior synonym)

Common Name (s)
• Camouflage Grouper (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial, Dangers
(Fisheries, aquaculture
Reported to cause ciguatera poisoning.)
(Commercial and recreational fishing, including the life reef fish trade, and also habitat degradation of coral reefs.)
Cultured:  Yes

Habitat:  Reef Associated
Trophic Level:  Secondary Consumer
Prey:  Crustaceans (portunid crabs) and fishes, sometimes on cephalopods and gastropods
IUCN Status:  NearThreatened


• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Rajan, PT (2003) A field guide to marine food fishes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands ZSI, 234/4, AJC Bose Road, 2nd MSO Building, (13th Floor), Nizam Palace, Kolkata-700 020 260 pp Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Durville, P; Chabanet, P and Quod, JP (2003) Visual Census of the Reef Fishes in the Natural Reserve of the Glorieuses Islands (Western Indian Ocean) Western Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci. WIOMSA 2 95-104
  • Chabanet, P and Patrick, D (2005) Reef Fish Inventory of Juan De Novas Natural Park (Western Indian Ocean) Western Indian Ocean Journal Marine Sciences 2005 WIOMSA 4 145-162
  • Garpe, KC and Ohman, MC (2003) Coral and fish distribution patterns in Mafia Island marine park Tanzania fish habitat interactions Hydrobiologia Kluwer Academic Publishers 498 191-211 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at - http://www.fishbase.org
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Weber, M; Beaufort, LF (1931) The fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago Print times, Pataudi house, Daryaganj, New Delhi 6 448 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at - http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  • Varghese, M; Manisseri, MK; Ramamurthy, N; Geetha, PM; Thomas, VJ and Gandhi, A (2011) Coral reef fishes of Gulf of Mannar, S.E of India Fishing Chimes CMFRI 31(1) 38-40 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Biswas, KP (2009) Fishes around Indian Ocean Reef Fishes Daya publishing house Available at - NIO,Goa

Page last updated on:2011-12-13

Back to Search