Epinephelus longispinis   (Kner,  1864) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Randall, J.E.

Size: 60 cm.

Max. weight reported: 2.7 kg.

Color: Head and body brownish, covered with dark, small, reddish brown spots that are rounded and well separated on head and front part of body, but becoming crowded and elongated posteriorly to form oblique streaks. Pectoral and pelvic fins dusky, with a few small dark spots.

Body depth contained 2.5 to 3.1 times in standard length. Preopercle rounded with a slight notch, below which the serrae are enlarged; maxilla reaches vertical at rear edge of eye; midlateral part of lower jaw with 2 or 3 rows of teeth; lower gillrakers 15 or 16. Dorsal fin with 11 spines and 16 or 17 soft rays; longest dorsal spine (3rd or 4th) 15 to 18% of standh 3 spines and 8 soft rays; pectoral fin rays 17 to 19; caudal fard length, longer than longest dorsal soft ray; anal fin witin rounded. Pored lateral line scales 50 to 53; lateral scale series 106 to 116; body scales distinctly ctenoid.

Protogynous, external fertilization, nonguarders, open water/substratum egg scatterers.

Similar to Epinephelus maculatus but fewer spots and posterior ones elongated.

Synonym (s)
Serranus longispinis Kner, 1864
Epinephelus fario (Thunberg, 1793)
Epinephelus longispinnis (Kner, 1864)

Common Name (s)
• Long Spine Grouper (English)
• Streakyspot Grouper (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Sold fresh in local markets, used in Chinese medicine.)
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(The greatest threat to Epinephelus longispinus is overfishing, followed by loss of habitat, since episodes of coral reef bleaching in the range of this species are likely to occur increasingly as SST increases.)

Habitat:  Benthic, Reef Associated, Rocky, Sandy, Muddy, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Tertiary Consumer
Prey:  Crustaceans especially crabs, stomatopods, rarely on small fishes, squids, and pelecypod flesh
IUCN Status:  Least Concern


• Tamil Nadu, Chennai Coast INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Karnataka, Netrani Island INDIA (Record: 01/2002-04/2002, 09/2002-12/2002) (Depth: 3-16 mts)
• Kerala, Vizhinjam INDIA (Record: 01/2002-04/2002, 09/2002-12/2002) (Depth: 3-11 mts)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Campbell Bay INDIA (Record: 28/10/1992)

Literature Source(s)
  • Rao, DV; Devi, K and Rajan, PT (2000) An account of ichthyofauna of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Bay of Bengal Occasional paper no 178 Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI, Calcutta 1-434 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Ohman, M; Rajasuriya, A and Olafsson, E (1997) Reef fish assemblages in north western Sri Lanka: Distribution patterns and influences of fishing practises Enviornmental Biology of Fishes Kluwer Academic Publishers 49 45-61
  • Rajan, PT (2003) A field guide to marine food fishes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands ZSI, 234/4, AJC Bose Road, 2nd MSO Building, (13th Floor), Nizam Palace, Kolkata-700 020 260 pp Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Letourneur, Y; Chabanet, P; Durville, P; Taquet, M; Teissier, E; Parmentier, M; Quero, JC and Pothin, K (2004) An updated checklist of the marine fish fauna of Reunion Island, south-western Indian Ocean Cybium 28(3) 199-216
  • Durville, P; Chabanet, P and Quod, JP (2003) Visual Census of the Reef Fishes in the Natural Reserve of the Glorieuses Islands (Western Indian Ocean) Western Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci. WIOMSA 2 95-104
  • Chabanet, P and Patrick, D (2005) Reef Fish Inventory of Juan De Novas Natural Park (Western Indian Ocean) Western Indian Ocean Journal Marine Sciences 2005 WIOMSA 4 145-162
  • Allen, GR and Mohammed, A (2003) Coral Reef Fishes of Indonesia Zoological Studies 42(1) 26299 Available at - Digital Information Resource Center, Pune.
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at - http://www.fishbase.org
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in/PDF/coastal%20data.pdf
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 4 Available at - http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/ad468e/ad468e00.HTM#Contents
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at - http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  • Sluka, RD and Lazarus, S (2010) Grouper (Pisces: Serranidae) relative abundance and diversity on the west coast of India Marine Biodiversity Records Cambridge University Press 3 1-3 Available at - http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1755267210000606
  • Dhandapani, P and Mishra, SS (1993) New records of marine fishes from Great Nicobar Journal of Andaman Science Association Andaman Science Association, Port Blair 9(1&2) 58-62 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2011-05-06

Back to Search