Acropora millepora   (Ehrenberg,  1834) (Hard Coral)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Cnidaria
Class: Anthozoa
Order:Scleractinia
Family:Acroporidae

Image copyrights: Gary Bell

Description
Color: Commonly green with orange tips; also bright salmon-pink, bright orange, or pale green, blue or pink.

Colonies are corymbose to tubular, with short branches. Radial corallites are all the same size and have prominent lower lips giving a scale-like appearance. Axial corallites are tubular in shape.


Synonym (s)
Heteropora millepora Ehrenberg, 1834

Common Name (s)
Economic Importance and Threats
Threats:  Natural threats, Anthropogenic
(Protected under Indian Wild Life Protection Act, 1972)
Threats:  Natural threats
(Members of this genus have a low resistance and low tolerance to bleaching and disease, and are slow to recover)
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(Fisheries, human development (industry, settlement, tourism, and transportation), changes in native species dynamics (competitors, predators, pathogens and parasites), invasive species (competitors, predators, pathogens and parasites), dynamite fishing, chemical fishing, pollution from agriculture and industry, domestic pollution, sedimentation, and human recreation and tourism activities)

Ecology
Habitat:  Reef Associated
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Plankton
Predator:  Acanthaster planci (the crown-of-thorns starfish)

Biogeography


• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Palk Bay INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Lat: 14) (Long: 94) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Lat: 8.53) (Long: 92.5) INDIA
• South India INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Wafar, MVM (2003) Checklists of reef fauna Available at - http://www.reefindia.org/
  • Tikadar, BK; Daniel, A and Subbarao, NV (1986) Sea shore animals of Andaman and Nicobar Islands The Director, ZSI, Kolkatta 188 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre Available at - http://www.unep-wcmc.org/
  • Venkatraman, K; Srinivasan, M; Satyanarayana, CH and Prabhakar D (2002) Faunal diversity of Gulf of Mannar biosphere reserve Conservation area series 15 ZSI 77 pp; VIII pla Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Checklist of fish and invertebrates listed in the CITES appendices and in EC regulation no. 338/97 Available at - http://www.ukcites.gov.uk/pdf_files/FishInvertebrates6.pdf
  • Coral reefs species in India Available at - http://envfor.nic.in/icrmn/species/species.html
  • Mazlan, AG; Zaidi, CC; WanLotfi, WM and Othman, BHR (2005) On the current status of coastal marine biodiversity in Malaysia Indian Journal of Marine Sciences National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources, CSIR, New Delhi, India, in association with Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi, INDIA 34(1) 76-87 Available at - NIO, RC, Kochi
  • Cairns, DS; Hoeksema, WB and Derland, JV (1999) List of extant stony corals Atoll Research Bulletin National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C, U. S. A 459 13-46 Available at - NIO, RC, Kochi
  • Allen, GR (2005) Reef fishes of northwestern Madagascar RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 31 39-48
  • Veron, JEN (1986) Corals of Australia and the Indo-Pacific University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu Available at - CMFRI, Kochi
  • (1998) Marine crabs of India National Institute of Oceanography Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Myers, P; Espinosa, R; Parr, CS; Jones, T; Hammond, GS and Dewey, TA (2006) Animal diversity web Available at - http://animaldiversity.org.
  • Sealifebase Available at - http://www.sealifebase.org/
  • Wafar, MVM and Wafar, S (2001) 101 questions on corals: Towards awareness National Institute of Oceanography, Goa and Administration of the U.T. of Lakshadweep 81 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Carpenter, KE; Abrar, M; Aeby, G; Aronson, RB; Banks, S et al. (2008) One third of reef building corals face elevated extinction risk from climate change and local impacts Science American Association for the Advancement of Science 321 125-126 Available at - http://sci.odu.edu/gmsa/about/Carpenter_corals_supplimental.pdf
  • Liveaquaria Available at - http://www.liveaquaria.com/
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in
  • Venkataraman, K; Satyanarayana, CH; Alfred, JRB and Wolstenholme, J (2003) Handbook on hard corals of India ZSI, Kolkata 266 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Indian Wild Life Protection Act, 1972
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at - http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  • Pillai, CSG. (1983) Structure and generic diversity of recent scleractinia of India Journal of Marine Biological Association of India 25(1&2) 78-90 Available at - CMFRI, Kochi
  • Arkive: Images of life on earth Available at - http://www.arkive.org/
  • Raghuram, KP and Venkataraman, K (2005) Staghorn corals of Gulf of Mannar Proceedings of the National Seminar on Reef Ecosystem Remediation SDMRI Special Research Publication No.9 25-35 Available at - http://www.sdmri.org/reports/proceedings%202005%20-%20sdmri.pdf
  • Pillai, CSG (1983) Coral reefs and their environs Bulletin Of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 34 36-43 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/995/1/Bulletin_No_34-6.pdf
  • Pillai, CSG The srtucture, formation and species diversity of south Indian reefs Proceedings of the third international coral reef symposium University of Miami 47-53 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/6789/1/pillai77.pdf

Page last updated on:2013-05-08

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