Epinephelus fuscoguttatus   (Forsskal,  1775) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Pete Atkinson

Size: 90-120 cm TL.

Max. weight reported: 11.0 kg.

Color: In alcohol specimens light brown, covered with small darker spots on head, body, tail and fins. Irregular larger dark blotches or bands at the base of the dorsal, another series of similar blotches sometimes along side of body, two diverging ones from behind eye to base of dorsal and to opercular flap and another one to maxillary. A black blotch on back of caudal peduncle. All these markings may get indistinct in adult specimens.

Profile of head rather convex. Height 2.9, 3.4 in length with caudal. Head 2.5, 3 in length with caudal. Eye 6.4, about 1.5 in snout and equal to interorbital space. Mouth oblique, lower jaw projecting, maxillary reaching beyond posterior border of eye, its width at distal extremity not much less than diameter of eye. Praeoperculum obtusely rounded behind, finely serrated along its hindborder. Middle opercular spine nearer to lower than to upper one. Opercular flap blunt, its upper border very convex. Head nearly entirely covered with cycloid scales. Maxillary scaly. Ten moderate gillrakers, preceded by some rudiments on lower part of anterior arch. Dorsal originating above base of pectorals. Spines increasing in length to fourth, which is as long as fifth and sixth and 2.8 in head, somewhat shorter than longest dorsal rays. Last dorsal spine three fourths of longest ones. Second anal spine as long as or a little shorter than third one, two thirds of last dorsal spine and half as long as longest soft anal rays. Pectorals shorter than postorbital part of head, about twice in head, ventrals slightly shorter. Caudal rounded. Scales cycloid in the adult, ctenoid in the young. Small juveniles (<8 cm) with small hexagonal spots on head and body becoming larger posteriorly and on vertical fins.

Protogynous, fertilization external, nonguarders, open water/substratum egg scatterers, oviparous.

Max. age reported: 40 years.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (Forsskal, 1775)
(Senior synonym)
Epinephelus lutra (Valenciennes, 1832)
(Junior synonym)
Epinephelus summana (non Forsskal, 1775)
(Misapplied name)
Perca summana fuscogutta Forsskal, 1775
Serranus fuscoguttatus (Forsskal, 1775)
(Senior synonym)
Serranus horridus Valenciennes, 1828
(Junior synonym)
Serranus lutra Valenciennes, 1832
(Junior synonym)
Serranus taeniocheirus Valenciennes, 1830
(Junior synonym)
Perca summana var. fuscoguttatus Forsskal, 1775
Serranus horridus Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1828
Serranus fuscoguttatus Ruppell, 1828
Serranus taeniocheirus Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1830
Serranus lutra Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1831
Serranus lebretonianus Hombron and Jacquinot, 1846
Serranus horridus Bleeker, 1849
Serranus goliath Peters, 1855
Serranus microdon Bleeker, 1856
Serranus fuscoguttatus Gunther, 1859
Epinephelus horridus Bleeker, 1863
Sebastes meleagris Peters, 1865
Serranus fuscoguttatus Kner, 1867
Serranus fuscoguttatus Playfair and Gunther, 1866
Serranus fuscoguttatus Klunzinger, 1870
Serranus dispar Gunther, 1875
Epinephelus fuscoguttatus Bleeker, 1876
Epinephelus dispar Bleeker, 1875
Serranus fuscoguttatus Day, 1888
Serranus fuscoguttatus Macleay, 1881
Epinephelus lutra Sauvage, 1891
Epinephelus fuscoguttatus Boulenger, 1895
Epinephelus fuscoguttatus Steindachner, 1901
Epinephelus fuscoguttatus Jordan and Seale, 1906
Epinephelus fuscoguttatus Mc Culloch, 1919
Epinephelus fuscoguttatus Fowler and Bean, 1922
Epinephelus fuscoguttatus Barnard, 1927
Serranus fuscoguttatus Fowler, 1928
Perca summana fuscoguttata Forsskal, 1775
(Senior synonym)
Epinephelus fuscoguttatus Weber and de Beaufort, 1931
Ephinephelus fuscoguttatus (Forsskal, 1775)
Epinephelus fuscogutatus (Forsskal, 1775)
Epinephelus fuscuguttatus (Forsskal, 1775)

Common Name (s)
• Marble Grouper (English)
• Flower Cod (English)
• Blotch Grouper (English)
• Brown Marbled Grouper (English)
• Black Rockcod (English)
• Black Tipped Cod (English)
• Blotchy Grouper (English)
• Blotchy Rockcod (English)
• Flowery Cod (English)
• Chammam
• Fana
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial, Dangers
(Fisheries, aquaculture, aquarium. Marketed fresh or frozen, ornamental fish
Reported to cause ciguatera poisoning.)
(Fishing and habitat destruction of seagrass beds and coral reefs.)
Cultured:  Yes

Habitat:  Reef Associated
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Fishes, crabs, and cephalopods


• Lakshadweep, Agatti INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kavaratti INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kilttan INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA
• Red Sea
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• Kerala INDIA
• Lakshadweep Islands INDIA (Record: 11/1993-01/1997)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Rao, DV; Devi, K and Rajan, PT (2000) An account of ichthyofauna of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Bay of Bengal Occasional paper no 178 Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI, Calcutta 1-434 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Devi, K and Rao, DV (2003) Poisonous and venomous fishes of Andaman Islands, Bay of Bengal Occasional paper no 211 Records of The Zoolgical Survey of India ZSI, Calcutta 25934 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre Available at - http://www.unep-wcmc.org/
  • Rouphael, T; Turak, E and Jon, B Seagrasses and mangroves of Yemen's Red Sea 41-89
  • Hussain, SM Brief report on biodiversity in the coastal areas of Pakistan p 113
  • Ohman, M; Rajasuriya, A and Olafsson, E (1997) Reef fish assemblages in north western Sri Lanka: Distribution patterns and influences of fishing practises Enviornmental Biology of Fishes Kluwer Academic Publishers 49 45-61
  • Heemstra, E; Heemstra, P; Smale, M; Hoopers, T and Pelicier, D (2004) Preliminary checklist of coastal fishes from the Mauritian island of Rodrigues Journal of natural history Taylor and Francis 38(23-24) 3315 - 3350 Available at - taylorandfrancis.metapress.com/ index/
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at - http://www.fishbase.org
  • Rajan, PT (2003) A field guide to marine food fishes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands ZSI, 234/4, AJC Bose Road, 2nd MSO Building, (13th Floor), Nizam Palace, Kolkata-700 020 260 pp Available at - NCL, Pune
  • (1998) Marine crabs of India National Institute of Oceanography Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Tun, MT (2001) Marine fishes of Myanmar (pelagic and demersal) U Than Tun, Director-General, Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries, Myanmar 276 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Weber, M; Beaufort, LF (1931) The fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago Print times, Pataudi house, Daryaganj, New Delhi 6 448 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Jones, S and Kumaran, M (1980) Fishes of the Laccadive Archipelago The Nature Conservation and Aquatic Sciences Service, Trivandrum, Kerala 760 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at - http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  • Talwar, PK and Kacker, RK (1984) Commercial sea fishes of India ZSI, Calcutta 997 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 4 Available at - http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/ad468e/ad468e00.HTM#Contents
  • Bijukumar, A and Deepthi, GR (2009) Mean trophic index of fish fauna associated with trawl bycatch of Kerala, southwest coast of India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 51(2) 145 - 154 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Jones, S. (1969) Catalogue of fishes from the Laccadive Archipelago in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute. Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 8 1-35 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/569/1/Bulletin_8.pdf
  • Murty, VS (2002) Marine ornamental fish resources of Lakshadweep CMFRI Special Publication CMFRI 72 1-134 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/3536/1/Special_Publication_No_72.pdf
  • Talwar, PK (1990) Fishes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands: A synoptic survey Journal of the Andaman Science Association Andaman Science Association, Port Blair 6(2) 71-102 Available at - NIO,Goa

Page last updated on:2011-07-20

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