Epinephelus flavocaeruleus   (Lacepede,  1802) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Marsden, A.

Size: 46-90 cm.

Weight: 15 kg.

Color: Adults have yellow fins. Small juveniles about half blue, half yellow.

Height 2.4-2.7, 3-3.2 in length with caudal. Head 2.5-2.6, 3.1 in length with caudal. Eye 5.9, less than interorbital space and 1.6 in snout. Lower jaw somewhat projecting. Mouth oblique, maxillary reaching to behind hindborder of eye, the width of its distal extremity three fifths of diameter of eye. Teeth in narrow bands, depressible teeth of mandibles and of symphysis of upper jaw enlarged, not much longer than the outer row of fixed teeth. Canines small. Praeoperculum coarsely serrated, some enlarged serrae near its angle, which is obtusely rounded. Middle opercular spine about midway between the upper and lower ones, which are much smaller, especially the upper one. Opercular flap pointed. Head, including maxillary, covered with cycloid scales. Gillrakers nearly as long as gill-fringes, 14-15 and some rudiments on lower part of anterior arch. Dorsal originating above base of pectorals, third or fourth spine longest, 2.5 in head, as long as or somewhat shorter than longest soft rays and much longer than last dorsal spine. Second anal spine a little shorter than third one, equal to second anal spine. Pectorals equal to distance between eye and middle opercular spine. Ventrals somewhat longer. Caudal truncate or slightly emarginate. Scales ciliated.

Protogynous, external fertilization, nonguarders, open water/substratum egg scatterers.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Bodianus macrocephalus Lacepede, 1802
(Junior synonym)
Epinephelus areolatus (non Forsskal, 1775)
(Misapplied name)
Holocentrus caerulescens Shaw, 1803
(Junior synonym)
Holocentrus flavocaeruleus Lacepede, 1801
Holocentrus flavocaeruleus Lacepede, 1802
(Senior synonym)
Holocentrus gymnosus Lacepede, 1802
(Junior synonym)
Perca flavapurpurea Bennett, 1830
(Junior synonym)
Serranus areolatus (non Forsskal, 1775)
(Misapplied name)
Serranus borbonicus Quoy & Gaimard, 1824
(Junior synonym)
Serranus flavocaeruleus (Lacepede, 1802)
(Senior synonym)
Serranus melanurus (non Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1817)
(Misapplied name)
Serranus flavocaeruleus Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1828
Serranus hoedti Bleeker, 1855
Serranus punctatissimus Gunther, 1859
Epinephelus hoedti Bleeker, 1876
Serranus flavocaeruleus Playfair and Gunther, 1866
Serranus hoedti Gunther, 1875
Epinephelus flavocaeruleus Bleeker, 1875
Serranus flavocaeruleus Day, 1888
Serranus hoedti Macleay, 1882
Serranus flavocaeruleus Perugia, 1889
Epinephelus flavocaeruleus Sauvage, 1891
Epinephelus flavocaeruleus Boulenger, 1895
Epinephelus hoedti Jordan and Evermann, 1902
Epinephelus flavocaeruleus Steindachner, 1902
Epinephelus macrocephalus Jordan and Seale, 1906
Epinephelus hoedtii Ogilby, 1912
Epinephelus flavocaeruleus McCulloch, 1919
Epinephelus flavocaeruleus Barnard, 1927
Serranus flavocaeruleus Fowler, 1928
Epinephelus flavo-caeruleus (Lacepede, 1802)
(Senior synonym)
Epinephelus flavocaeruleus Weber and de Beaufort, 1931
Cynichthys flavopurpuratus (Bennett, 1830)
Epinephelus flavocoeruleus (Lacepede, 1802)
Serranus borbonius Quoy & Gaimard, 1824
Serranus flavocoeruleus (Lacepede, 1802)

Common Name (s)
• Yellowtail Rockcod (English)
• Blue and Yellow Grouper (English)
• Yellowfin Grouper (English)
• Yellowtail Reefcod (English)
• Blue and Yellow Reef Cod (English)
• Chammam (Malayalam)
• Manja Kalava (Malayalam)
• Munjil Cullawah (Tamil)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries, aquarium)
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(Loss of habitat is likely the greatest threat to Epinephelus flavocaeruleus, with episodes of coral reef bleaching in the range of this species are likely to occur increasingly as sea surface temperature (SST) increases. Dynamiting of reefs, fishing with poisons and netting on reefs have resulted in loss of habitat in several countries. Overfishing is also a possible threat.)

Habitat:  Reef Associated, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Fishes, crabs, shrimps, spiny lobsters, squids, and small octopi
IUCN Status:  Least Concern


• Tamil Nadu, Chennai Coast INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Tinnakara INDIA
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Great Nicobar Island INDIA (Record: 08/2000-07/2003)
• Kerala, Vizhinjam INDIA (Record: 01/2002-04/2002, 09/2002-12/2002) (Depth: 3-11 mts)
• Kerala INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Rao, DV; Devi, K and Rajan, PT (2000) An account of ichthyofauna of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Bay of Bengal Occasional paper no 178 Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI, Calcutta 1-434 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre Available at - http://www.unep-wcmc.org/
  • Hussain, SM Brief report on biodiversity in the coastal areas of Pakistan p 113
  • Heemstra, E; Heemstra, P; Smale, M; Hoopers, T and Pelicier, D (2004) Preliminary checklist of coastal fishes from the Mauritian island of Rodrigues Journal of natural history Taylor and Francis 38(23-24) 3315 - 3350 Available at - taylorandfrancis.metapress.com/ index/
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at - http://www.fishbase.org
  • Rajan, PT (2003) A field guide to marine food fishes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands ZSI, 234/4, AJC Bose Road, 2nd MSO Building, (13th Floor), Nizam Palace, Kolkata-700 020 260 pp Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Letourneur, Y; Chabanet, P; Durville, P; Taquet, M; Teissier, E; Parmentier, M; Quero, JC and Pothin, K (2004) An updated checklist of the marine fish fauna of Reunion Island, south-western Indian Ocean Cybium 28(3) 199-216
  • Kemp, JM (1998) Zoogeography of the coral reef fishes of the Socotra Archipelago Journal of Biogeography 25 919-933
  • Matthews, AD (1983) Mercury content of commercially important fish of the Seychelles, and hair mercury levels of a selected part of the population Environmental Research 30(2) 305-312 Available at - Zoological Records
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Weber, M; Beaufort, LF (1931) The fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago Print times, Pataudi house, Daryaganj, New Delhi 6 448 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in/PDF/coastal%20data.pdf
  • Jones, S and Kumaran, M (1980) Fishes of the Laccadive Archipelago The Nature Conservation and Aquatic Sciences Service, Trivandrum, Kerala 760 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at - http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 4 Available at - http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/ad468e/ad468e00.HTM#Contents
  • Rajaram, R; Srinivasan, M; Khan, SA and Kannan, L (2004) Ichthyofaunal diversity of great Nicobar Island, Bay of Bengal Journal of Indian fisheries association 31 13-26 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Sluka, RD and Lazarus, S (2010) Grouper (Pisces: Serranidae) relative abundance and diversity on the west coast of India Marine Biodiversity Records Cambridge University Press 3 1-3 Available at - http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1755267210000606
  • Jones, S. (1969) Catalogue of fishes from the Laccadive Archipelago in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute. Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 8 1-35 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/569/1/Bulletin_8.pdf
  • Varghese, M; Manisseri, MK; Ramamurthy, N; Geetha, PM; Thomas, VJ and Gandhi, A (2011) Coral reef fishes of Gulf of Mannar, S.E of India Fishing Chimes CMFRI 31(1) 38-40 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • James, PSBR; Lazarius, S and Arumugam, G (1994) The present status of 'Major Perch' fisheries in India Perch fisheries in India Bulletin Of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 47 1-9 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/8218/1/Bulletin_No_47.pdf

Page last updated on:2011-09-08

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