Epinephelus chlorostigma   (Valenciennes,  1828) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Randall, J.E.

Size: 63-75 cm.

Weight: 7 kg.

Color: Pale brown but patterned with numerous dark brown hexagonal blotches which extend onto the fins. The edges of the caudal and soft dorsal fins are white. The belly is paler than the rest of the body.

Body is moderately elongate and robust. The fins are spiny and include a single dorsal fin of 11 spines and 16-18 soft rays, an anal fin of 3 spines plus 8 rays, pelvic fins with 1 spine and 5 rays each and a square to slightly emarginate caudal fin. Several bands of fine backward-folding teeth are present in each jaw. Height 2.5, 3.3 in length with caudal. Eye 4.9, 1.2 in snout. Interorbital space about two thirds of eye-diameter. Maxillary scaly, reaching to below middle of eye, the width of its distal extremity 1.6 in eye. Praeoperculum rectangular, somewhat produced at angle, the serrae at angle somewhat enlarged. Flap of operculum pointed. Opercular spine about equidistant, the lower one in the same vertical as the upper one. Gillrakers 13 and some rudiments on lower part of anterior arch. Teeth in two series on the sides of the mandibles. Dorsal originating above base of pectorals. Fourth dorsal spine longest, one third of length of head. Last dorsal spine only slightly shorter. Longest soft dorsal rays somewhat longer than longest spine. Second and third anal spine subequal, about one fourth of length of head. Longest soft anal rays longer than largest soft dorsal rays. Ventrals equal to postorbital part of head, pectorals half eye-diameter longer. Caudal truncate. Scales of head cycloid, of body and tail ctenoid.

Protogynous, external fertilization, nonguarders, open water/substratum egg scatterers.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Serranus areolatus japonicus Temminck & Schlegel, 1842
(Junior synonym)
Serranus assabensis Giglioli, 1889
(Junior synonym)
Serranus celebicus multipunctatus Kossman & Rauber, 1877
(Ambiguous synonym)
Serranus chlorostigma Valenciennes, 1828
(Senior synonym)
Serranus geoffroyi Klunzinger, 1870
(Junior synonym)
Serranus reevesii Richardson, 1846
(Junior synonym)
Serranus tauvina (non Forsskal, 1775)
(Misapplied name)
Serranus tauvina Geoffroy, 1809
Serranus areolatus Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1828
Serranus waandersi Bleeker, 1859
Serranus areolatus Klunzinger, 1870
Epinephelus waandersi Bleeker, 1876
Serranus areolatus Day, 1888
Serranus (Hyposerranus) geoffroyi Klunzinger, 1884
Serranus assabensis Giglioli, 1888
Epinephelus chlorostigma Sauvage, 1891
Epinephelus chlorostigma Boulenger, 1895
Epinephelus chlorostigma Steindachner, 1902
Epinephelus chlorostigma Jordan and Evermann, 1902
Epinephelus chlorostigma Jordan and Richardson, 1910
Epinephelus chlorostigma Jordan, 1913

Common Name (s)
• Brown Spotted Grouper (English)
• Brown Spotted Reef Cod (English)
• Brownspotted Rockcod (English)
• Hekru (Marathi)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Marketed fresh or frozen)

Habitat:  Reef Associated, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Secondary Consumer
Prey:  Small fishes and crustaceans (mainly stomatopods and crabs)
IUCN Status:  Least Concern


• Kerala, Off Kozhikode INDIA (Record: 1992-2002)
• Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam INDIA
• Kerala INDIA
• Arabian Sea (Lat: 18.5) (Long: 17.43) INDIA (Record: 02/1985-06/1987) (Depth: 79 mts)
• Orissa, Puri INDIA (Record: 1987-2006)
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Maharashtra INDIA
• Kerala, Kochi INDIA
• Kerala, Off Travancore Coast INDIA

Literature Source(s)
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  • Rouphael, T; Turak, E and Jon, B Seagrasses and mangroves of Yemen's Red Sea 41-89
  • Brothers, EB and Mathews, CP (1987) Application of otolith microstructural studies to age determination of some commercially valuable fish of the Arabian Gulf Kuwait Bulletin of Marine Science 9 127-157 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Heemstra, E; Heemstra, P; Smale, M; Hoopers, T and Pelicier, D (2004) Preliminary checklist of coastal fishes from the Mauritian island of Rodrigues Journal of natural history Taylor and Francis 38(23-24) 3315 - 3350 Available at - taylorandfrancis.metapress.com/ index/
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  • Pilling, GM; Grandcourt, EM and Kirkwood, GP (2003) The utility of otolith weight as a predictor of age in the emperor Lethrinus mahsena and other tropical fish species Fisheries Research (Amsterdam) 60 493-506 Available at - Zoological Records
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  • Weber, M; Beaufort, LF (1931) The fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago Print times, Pataudi house, Daryaganj, New Delhi 6 448 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Sujatha, K (2004) Groupers off Visakhapatnam, northeast coast of India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 46(1) 87-92 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 4 Available at - http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/ad468e/ad468e00.HTM#Contents
  • Bijukumar, A and Deepthi, GR (2009) Mean trophic index of fish fauna associated with trawl bycatch of Kerala, southwest coast of India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 51(2) 145 - 154 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Balachandran, K and Nizar, MA (1990) A check list of fishes of the Exclusive Economic Zone of India collected during the research cruises of FORV Sagar Sampada Proceedings of the first workshop on scientific results of FORV Sagar Sampada CMFRI, Cochin 305-324 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/5269/1/43.pdf
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  • Varghese, M; Manisseri, MK; Ramamurthy, N; Geetha, PM; Thomas, VJ and Gandhi, A (2011) Coral reef fishes of Gulf of Mannar, S.E of India Fishing Chimes CMFRI 31(1) 38-40 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • James, PSBR; Lazarius, S and Arumugam, G (1994) The present status of 'Major Perch' fisheries in India Perch fisheries in India Bulletin Of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 47 1-9 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/8218/1/Bulletin_No_47.pdf
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at - eprints.cmfri.org.in/3975/1/Special_Publication_No_12_Revised.pdf
  • Biswas, KP (2009) Fishes around Indian Ocean Fishery Resources Daya publishing house Available at - NIO,Goa

Page last updated on:2012-01-12

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