Epinephelus bleekeri   (Vaillant,  1878) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Randall, J.E.

Size: 50-76 cm.

Color: Ground colour light brown above, lighter brown below; upper parts of head and body, pelvic and anal fins, and upper half of caudal fin covered with orange to orange/red spots; lower half of caudal fin and outer edge of anal fin purple/brown.

Height 3-3.5, 3.6-4.3 in length with caudal. Head 2.5-2.7, 3-3.3 in length with caudal. Eye 4.4-6.1, equal to or a little more than interorbital space and 1.2-1.6 in snout. Lower jaw rather strongly projecting. Mouth somewhat oblique, maxillary reaching almost to below hindborder of eye, the width at its distal extremity three fourths of eye. Angle of praeoperculum obtuse, slightly projecting, with enlarged serrae. Hindborder of praeoperculum finely serrated. Middle opercular spine nearly equidistant from lower and upper one. Lower spine further back than upper, which is very small. Teeth in narrow bands, the fixed teeth of the outer row longer than the flexible ones, which last are only enlarged near symphysis of upper jaw. Canines moderate. Gillrakers nearly as long as gill-fringes, 16 in lower part of anterior arch. Head, including maxillary, covered with cycloid scales. Dorsal originating above base of pectorals, fourth spine longest, 2.5 in head, as long as longest soft dorsal rays. Second anal spine a little shorter than third, shorter than second dorsal spine and than longest soft anal rays. Pectorals equal to or somewhat more than distance between eye and point of middle opercular spine. Ventrals somewhat shorter. Scales ciliated. Caudal truncate.

Fertilization external, oviparous.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Epinephelus coromandelicus Day, 1878
Serranus longispinis Playfair and Gunther, 1866
Serranus waandersi Day, 1888
Serranus coromandelicus Boulenger, 1889
Epinephelus coromandelicus Boulenger, 1895
Epinephelus coromandelicus M. Weber, 1913
Acanthistius bleekeri (Vaillant, 1878)
Epinephelus albimaculatus Seale, 1910
Serranus bleekeri Vaillant, 1878
Serranus coromandelicus Day, 1878

Common Name (s)
• Duskytail Grouper (English)
• Bleekers Rock Cod (English)
• Bleekers Grouper (English)
• Bleekers Reef Cod (English)
• Kalava
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
Cultured:  Yes

Habitat:  Reef Associated, Rocky, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Secondary Consumer
IUCN Status:  NearThreatened


• Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Lat: 12.53) (Long: 92.82) INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam INDIA
• Maharashtra, Mumbai INDIA
• Tamil Nadu INDIA
• Persian Gulf
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Great Nicobar Island INDIA (Record: 08/2000-07/2003)
• Orissa, Dhamra Estuary INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Kerala INDIA

Literature Source(s)
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  • Hussain, SM Brief report on biodiversity in the coastal areas of Pakistan p 113
  • Brothers, EB and Mathews, CP (1987) Application of otolith microstructural studies to age determination of some commercially valuable fish of the Arabian Gulf Kuwait Bulletin of Marine Science 9 127-157 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Mathews, CP and Samuel, M (1987) Growth, mortality and assessments for groupers from Kuwait Kuwait Bulletin of Marine Science 9 173-191 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Rajan, PT (2003) A field guide to marine food fishes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands ZSI, 234/4, AJC Bose Road, 2nd MSO Building, (13th Floor), Nizam Palace, Kolkata-700 020 260 pp Available at - NCL, Pune
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  • Weber, M; Beaufort, LF (1931) The fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago Print times, Pataudi house, Daryaganj, New Delhi 6 448 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
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  • Talwar, PK and Kacker, RK (1984) Commercial sea fishes of India ZSI, Calcutta 997 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at - http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 4 Available at - http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/ad468e/ad468e00.HTM#Contents
  • Fischer, W and Whitehead, PJP (1974) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Eastern Indian Ocean - Fishing Area 57 and Western Central Pacific - Fishing Area 71 FAO, Rome 4 Available at - http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/e9163e/e9163e00.htm
  • Dr. Kumaraguru, AK (2000) Studies on socioeconomics of Coral Reef resource users in the Gulf of Mannar coast, South India Centre for Marine and Coastal studies School of Energy, Environment and Natural Resources Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, India Available at - http://planningcommission.nic.in/reports/sereport/ser/stdy_coral.pdf
  • Rajaram, R; Srinivasan, M; Khan, SA and Kannan, L (2004) Ichthyofaunal diversity of great Nicobar Island, Bay of Bengal Journal of Indian fisheries association 31 13-26 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Dutta, SK (2007) Biodiversity assessment of Dhamra port site and surrounding areas, Orissa Greenpeace India 4-38 Available at - http://www.greenpeace.org/raw/content/india/press/reports/greenpeace-biodiversity.pdf
  • Murty, VS (1969) Catalogue of fishes (excluding from the Laccadives) in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 10 1-38 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/571/1/Bulletin_10.pdf
  • Talwar, PK (1990) Fishes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands: A synoptic survey Journal of the Andaman Science Association Andaman Science Association, Port Blair 6(2) 71-102 Available at - NIO,Goa
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Page last updated on:2011-10-17

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