Epinephelus areolatus   (Forsskal,  1775) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Randall, J.E.

Size: 30-50 cm.

Weight: 1-1.5 kg.

Color: The head, body and fins are pale brown and patterned with numerous dark brown spots with the spots on the fins being much darker. The caudal fin edge is dusky but is bordered with a distinct fine white outer margin.

Body is slender and laterally compressed. The fins are spiny and include a single dorsal fin of 11 spines and 15-16 rays, an anal fin with 3 spines and 8 soft rays and a truncate to slightly emarginate caudal fin. The lateral line is faintly visible with lateral line scales arranged in 97-115 series. Height 3-3.4, 3.8-4.4 in length with caudal. Head 2.6, 3.2-3.4 in length with caudal. Eye 5-5.4, equal to or somewhat more than interorbital space, 1.1-1.3 in snout. Lower jaw rather strongly projecting. Mouth slightly oblique, maxillary reaching to below centre or posterior border of eye, the width of its distal extremity 1.5-1.8 in diameter of eye. Teeth in narrow bands, the inner series of depressible teeth in the mandibles and those near symphysis in the upper jaw rather longer than the others. An outer row of fixed teeth in both jaws ending in a moderate canine near symphysis. Praeoperculum evenly serrated behind, its angle produced and provided with 3-7 enlarged spines. Opercular spines nearly equidistant, the upper one very small. Gillrakers as long as gill-fringes, 13 and some rudiments on lower part of anterior arch. Dorsal originating above base of pectorals, fourth spine longest, much longer than last dorsal spine, longer than longest soft dorsal rays and about 2.5 in head. Second anal spine as long as, or slightly longer than third, shorter than second dorsal spine and than longest soft anal rays. Pectorals and ventrals subequal, as long as postorbital part of head. Caudal emarginate, the lobes pointed.

Fertilization external, oviparous.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Perca areolata Forsskal, 1775
Serranus melanurus Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1828
Serranus celebicus Bleeker, 1851
Serranus celebicus Gunther, 1859
Epinephelus celebicus Bleeker, 1874
Serranus celebicus Klunzinger, 1870
Epinephelus angularis Bleeker, 1876
Serranus celebicus von Martens, 1876
Serranus angularis Day, 1888
Serranus angularis Steindachner and Doderlein, 1883
Serranus (Hyposerranus) areolatus Klunzinger, 1884
Epinephelus angularis Sauvage, 1891
Epinephelus areolatus Boulenger, 1895
Epinephelus areolatus Fowler and Bean, 1922
Bodianus melanurus Geoffroy, 1809
Ephinephelus areolatus (Forsskal, 1775)
Epinephelus angularis (Valenciennes, 1828)
Epinephelus craspedurus Jordan & Richardson, 1910
Epinephelus waandersii Bleeker, 1859
Perca areolata Forsskal, 1775
Serranus angularis Valenciennes, 1828
Serranus celebicus Bleeker, 1851
Serranus glaucus Day, 1871
Serranus waandersii Bleeker, 1859

Common Name (s)
• Areolated Grouper (English)
• Aerolated reef-cod (English)
• Areolate Grouper (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Aquaculture, marketed fresh or frozen)
Cultured:  Yes

Habitat:  Reef Associated, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Secondary Consumer
Prey:  Fish and benthic invertebrates, primarily prawns and crabs
IUCN Status:  Least Concern


• Tamil Nadu, Chennai Coast INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Kerala INDIA
• Karnataka, Netrani Island INDIA (Record: 01/2002-04/2002, 09/2002-12/2002) (Depth: 3-16 mts)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Tamil Nadu INDIA
• Maharashtra INDIA
• Kerala, Kochi Coast INDIA

Literature Source(s)
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  • Allen, GR and Mohammed, A (2003) Coral Reef Fishes of Indonesia Zoological Studies 42(1) 26299 Available at - Digital Information Resource Center, Pune.
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  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 4 Available at - http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/ad468e/ad468e00.HTM#Contents
  • Fischer, W and Whitehead, PJP (1974) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Eastern Indian Ocean - Fishing Area 57 and Western Central Pacific - Fishing Area 71 FAO, Rome 4 Available at - http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/e9163e/e9163e00.htm
  • Dr. Kumaraguru, AK (2000) Studies on socioeconomics of Coral Reef resource users in the Gulf of Mannar coast, South India Centre for Marine and Coastal studies School of Energy, Environment and Natural Resources Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, India Available at - http://planningcommission.nic.in/reports/sereport/ser/stdy_coral.pdf
  • Bijukumar, A and Deepthi, GR (2009) Mean trophic index of fish fauna associated with trawl bycatch of Kerala, southwest coast of India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 51(2) 145 - 154 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Sluka, RD and Lazarus, S (2010) Grouper (Pisces: Serranidae) relative abundance and diversity on the west coast of India Marine Biodiversity Records Cambridge University Press 3 1-3 Available at - http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1755267210000606
  • Talwar, PK (1990) Fishes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands: A synoptic survey Journal of the Andaman Science Association Andaman Science Association, Port Blair 6(2) 71-102 Available at - NIO,Goa
  • James, PSBR; Lazarius, S and Arumugam, G (1994) The present status of 'Major Perch' fisheries in India Perch fisheries in India Bulletin Of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 47 1-9 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/8218/1/Bulletin_No_47.pdf
  • Bapat, SV; Deshmukh, VM; Krishnamoorthi, B; Muthiah, C; Kagwade, PV; Ramamirtham, CP; Mathew, KJ; Pillai, SK and C. Mukundan (1982) Species composition, distribution and abundance of major groups/species Fishery resources of the Exclusive Economic Zone of the NorthWest coast of India Bulletin Of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute CMFRI, Kochi 33 1-86 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/808/1/Bulletin_No_33.pdf
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at - eprints.cmfri.org.in/3975/1/Special_Publication_No_12_Revised.pdf
  • Biswas, KP (2009) Fishes around Indian Ocean Dominant Fish Groups Occurring in Indian Coasts Daya publishing house Available at - NIO,Goa

Page last updated on:2012-01-10

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