Rapana rapiformis   (Born,  1778) (Sea Snail)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Gastropoda

Image copyrights: Eddie Hardy

Size: Length: 22.90-102.60 mm; diameter: 17.90-84.76 mm; max height of the aperture: 9.60-83.75 mm; height of spire 8.49-33.68 mm.

Color: Uniform orange-brown; light brown with 3-4 chocolate brown bands on body, aperture white, operculum oval in shape, thin transparent, outer margin thickened on one side, nucleus near outer margin dark brown.

A distinctive shell which is thin, light, very globose, turnip-shaped with a low, short, pointed spire, large body whorl and wide aperture.. Suture channelled, subsutural ramp convex, shoulders with short but prominent, curved, open-sided spines, sculptured with weak spiral cords, the cord around the body whorl weakly nodulose, aperture pyriform, outer side finely lirate, outer lip edge toothed, columella smooth, thin and reflected over the umbilicus anteriorly, fasciole narrow, prominently imbricate, umbilicus very wide and deep. Aperture is very wide with a thin but strong outer lip. Operculum is oval in shape, thin and transparent.The outer margin is thick on one side, with a dark brown nucleus near the outer margin. Spire whorls with deep sutures and moderate-sized tubercles (2-3 rows of tubercles on body whorl, most prominent on shoulder).

Synonym (s)
Murex rapiformis Born, 1778
Pyrula bulbosa Reeve, 1847
Rapana bulbosa Satyamurti, 1952
Rapana bulbosa Watson, 1886
Buccinum bulbosum Dillwn, 1817
Rapana bulbosa Hornell, 1921
Rapana bulbosa Solander, 1858
Rapana bulbosa Tryon, 1880
Rapana bulbosa Crichton, 1941
Rapana bulbosa Gravely, 1942
Rapana rapiformis Rippingale and McMicheal, 1961
Rapana rapiformis Cernohorsky, 1972
Rapana rapiformis Surya Rao and Subba Rao, 1991
Murex rapiformes var. a Born, 1778
Buccinum bulbosum Dillwyn, 1817
Rapana rapiformes Cernohorsky, 1972
Rapa volema Roding, 1798
Murex rapa Gmelin, 1791
Murex rapiformis var. a Born, 1778
Rapana bulbosa Melvill & Standen, 1898
Rapana bulbosa Melvill and Standen, 1901
Rapana rapiformis (Born, 1778)
(Senior synonym)
Rapana bulbosa (Lightfoot, 1786)
(Junior synonym)

Common Name (s)
Economic Importance and Threats

Habitat:  Coastal


• Tamil Nadu, Parangipettai Coast (Lat: 11.48) (Long: 79.77) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Parangipettai Coast INDIA
• West Bengal, Digha INDIA (Record: 27/11/1984)
• West Bengal, Medinipur INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Gujarat INDIA
• Orissa INDIA
• Pondicherry INDIA
• Tamil Nadu INDIA
• Orissa, Balasore Bay INDIA
• Orissa, Puri INDIA (Record: 15/11/1962)
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Parangipettai INDIA
• Persian Gulf (Record: 1991, 1993)
• Gujarat, Okha beach INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Thodyarpet INDIA
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pamban INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Bimlipatam INDIA
• Karachi PAKISTAN
• Tamil Nadu, Vellar Estuary INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Dhanushkodi INDIA
• West Bengal, Digha Coast INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Subba Rao, NV (2003) Indian seashells Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI, Kolkata (Part 1) 416 pp Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Tikadar, BK; Daniel, A and Subbarao, NV (1986) Sea shore animals of Andaman and Nicobar Islands The Director, ZSI, Kolkatta 188 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • Subba Rao, NV and Dey, A (2000) Catalogue of marine molluscs of Andaman and Nicobar Islands Occasional paper no 187 Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI 1-323 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Subba Rao, NV and Surya Rao, KV (1993) Contribution to the knowledge of Indian marine molluscs: Pt. 3. Family: Muricidae Occasional paper no 153 Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI, Kolkata 133 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Zoological Survey of India (Eds.) (1998) Fauna Of Mahanadi estuary, Orissa Estuarine ecosystem series no 3 ZSI, Kolkata 1-218 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • Rajagopal, S; Khan, SA; Srinivasan, M and Shanmugam, A (1998) Gastropods of Parangipettai coast Annamalai University 38 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Ramakrishna; Sarkar, J and Talukdar, S (2003) Marine invertebrates of Digha coast and some recomendations on their conservation Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI, Kolkata 101(3-4) 1 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Fernando, AS and Fernando, OJ (2002) A field guide to the common invertebrates of the east coast of India Centre of Advanced Study in Marine Biology 1-258 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Wilson, B; Wilson, C and Baker, P (1994) Australian marine shells 2 1-370 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Eddie, H Hardy's internet guide to marine gastropods Available at - http://www.gastropods.com/
  • Subba Rao, NV; Dey, A and Barua, S (1992) Estuarine and marine molluscs Fauna of West Bengal Part 9 (State fauna series 3) ZSI, Calcutta 129-268 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Rao, NVS; Rao, KVS and Maitra, S (1991) Marine molluscs State fauna series 1: Fauna of Orissa Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta Part 3 1-175 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Ramesh, S; Samipillai, SS and Elangomathavan, R (2009) Environmental sciences habitat diversity of hermit crab Clibanarius longitarsus (de haan) in Vellar estuary, south east coast of India Recent Research in Science and Technology 1(4) 161–168 Available at - http://recent-science.com/article/viewFile/1022/763
  • Samuel, VD; Chacko, D and Edward, JKP (2005) Preliminary study on the molluscan diversity of “the lost world’’– Dhanushkodi, east coast of India Proceedings of the National Seminar on Reef Ecosystem Remediation SDMRI Special Research Publication No.9 54-58 Available at - http://www.sdmri.org/reports/proceedings%202005%20-%20sdmri.pdf
  • Dey, M and Mitra, A (2005) Molluscan community around Digha coast, West Bengal, India Journal of Environment and Sociobiology Social Environmental and Biological Association, Kolkata, India 2(1&2) 43-47 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2011-12-14

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