Tonna dolium   (Linnaeus,  1758) (Sea Snail)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Gastropoda

Image copyrights: Eddie Hardy

Size: 50-150 mm.
Length: 23.20-76.45 mm.
Diameter: 16.90-67.90 mm.
Maximum height of the aperture: 19.45-71.50 mm.

Color: White, brown, pale bluish white, the principal ribs being marked with a bold pattern of alternating patches of white and dark yellowish brown.

Thin, globose, impressed suture, whorls with flat bands between fine ridges, very large aperture, thin outer lip. The surface is ornamented with strong, raised , widely spaced, spiral ribs and with much minor, secondary spiral ribs in the interstices between the principal ribs; the median one of the finer ribs is usually slightly stronger than the rest, but yet much weaker than the main ribs. The columella is more or less straight and obliquely striated. The aperture is very wide and its interior marked by spiral depressions which correspond to the external ribs.

Synonym (s)
Buccinum dolium Linnaeus, 1758
Dolium maculatum Lamarck, 1845
Tonna maculatum Lamarck, 1845
Buccinum dolium Linne, 1758
Dolium maculatum Reeve, 1849
Dolium maculatum Vredenburg, 1919
Tonna dolium Crichton, 1941
Tonna dolium Gravely, 1942
Tonna dolium Linnaeus, 1758
Tonna dolium Cernohorsky, 1972
Tonna dolium Mookherjee, 1985
Buccinum dolium Linnaeus, 1758
Buccinum dolium var. A Dillwyn, 1817
Cadium dolium Link, 1807
Cadus cassis Roding, 1798
Cadus dolium Roding, 1798
Dolium cassis Morch, 1853
Dolium costatum var. maculatum Tryon, 1885
Dolium maculatum Schroter in Martini, 1788

Common Name (s)
• Spotted Tun
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(For decoration, ornamental molluscs.)

Habitat:  Demersal, Sandy, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Secondary Consumer
Prey:  Carnivores


• Tamil Nadu, Shingle Island INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Shingle Island (Lat: 9.23) (Long: 79.23) INDIA
• Orissa, Mahanadi Estuary (Lat: 20.32) (Long: 86.75) INDIA
• Maharashtra, Mumbai (Lat: 18.98) (Long: 72.83) INDIA
• West Bengal, Digha beach (Lat: 21.65) (Long: 87.63) INDIA
• West Bengal, Digha Coast (Lat: 21.61) (Long: 87.53) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Parangipettai Coast (Lat: 11.48) (Long: 79.77) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pamban (Lat: 9.25) (Long: 79.33) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Parangipettai Coast INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Agasthiampalli INDIA (Record: 08/02/1962)
• Tamil Nadu, Kodikkarai INDIA (Record: 16/02/1968)
• Tamil Nadu, Vedaranyam INDIA (Record: 18/02/1968)
• Tamil Nadu, Mallipattinam INDIA (Record: 13/01/1978)
• Tamil Nadu, Krusadai Island INDIA
• Karachi PAKISTAN
• West Bengal, Digha INDIA (Record: 04/09/1964, 22/09/1979, 12/07/1984)
• West Bengal, Medinipur INDIA
• West Bengal, North 24 Parganas INDIA
• West Bengal, South 24 Parganas INDIA
• Tamil Nadu INDIA
• West Bengal, New Digha INDIA (Record: 07/2000-06/2001)
• West Bengal, Junput INDIA (Record: 07/2000-06/2001)
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Kakinada Bay INDIA
• Orissa, Chandipur INDIA (Record: 21/01/1972)
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pamban INDIA
• Maharashtra, Mumbai INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Orissa, Talburai INDIA (Record: 03/11/1962-06/11/1962)
• Tamil Nadu, Vellar Estuary INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Dhanushkodi INDIA
• West Bengal, Sandheads INDIA
• West Bengal, Gona INDIA (Record: 18/09/1983)
• Tamil Nadu, Kilakarai INDIA
• Kerala, Neendakara INDIA
• Kerala, Kochi, Sakthikulangara INDIA
• West Bengal, Digha Coast INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Subba Rao, NV (2003) Indian seashells Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI, Kolkata (Part 1) 416 pp Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Tikadar, BK; Daniel, A and Subbarao, NV (1986) Sea shore animals of Andaman and Nicobar Islands The Director, ZSI, Kolkatta 188 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • Subba Rao, NV and Dey, A (2000) Catalogue of marine molluscs of Andaman and Nicobar Islands Occasional paper no 187 Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI 1-323 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Venkatraman, K; Srinivasan, M; Satyanarayana, CH and Prabhakar D (2002) Faunal diversity of Gulf of Mannar biosphere reserve Conservation area series 15 ZSI 77 pp; VIII pla Available at - NCL, Pune
  • (2001) Fauna of Godavari estuary, Andhra Pradesh Estuarine ecosystem series 4 ZSI, Kolkata 1-166 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • Zoological Survey of India (Eds.) (1998) Fauna Of Mahanadi estuary, Orissa Estuarine ecosystem series no 3 ZSI, Kolkata 1-218 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • Rajagopal, S; Khan, SA; Srinivasan, M and Shanmugam, A (1998) Gastropods of Parangipettai coast Annamalai University 38 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • OBIS Indo-Pacific molluscan database Available at -
  • Ramakrishna; Sarkar, J and Talukdar, S (2003) Marine invertebrates of Digha coast and some recomendations on their conservation Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI, Kolkata 101(3-4) 1 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Chandrasekhara, G and Mishra, A (1986) The meiofauna and macrofauna of Digha beach, West Bengal, India Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI, Kolkata 83(3-4) Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Fernando, AS and Fernando, OJ (2002) A field guide to the common invertebrates of the east coast of India Centre of Advanced Study in Marine Biology 1-258 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • (1998) Marine crabs of India National Institute of Oceanography Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Hosseinzadeh, H; Daghoghi, B and Rameshi, H (2001) Atlas of the Persian Gulf molluscs Oman sea fisheries research center, Oman 208 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Eddie, H Hardy's internet guide to marine gastropods Available at -
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Subba Rao, NV; Dey, A and Barua, S (1992) Estuarine and marine molluscs Fauna of West Bengal Part 9 (State fauna series 3) ZSI, Calcutta 129-268 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Khalua, RK; Chakravarty, G and Chakraborty, SK (2003) Annotated list of molluscs from the coastal tract of Midnapore District, West Bengal, India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 45(2) 245-249 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at -
  • Raut, D; Ganesh, T; Murty, NVSS and Raman, AV (2005) Macrobenthos of Kakinada Bay in the Godavari delta, East coast of India: comparing decadal changes Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science Elsevier 62(4) 609-620 Available at -
  • Rao, NVS; Rao, KVS and Maitra, S (1991) Marine molluscs State fauna series 1: Fauna of Orissa Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta Part 3 1-175 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Ramesh, S; Samipillai, SS and Elangomathavan, R (2009) Environmental sciences habitat diversity of hermit crab Clibanarius longitarsus (de haan) in Vellar estuary, south east coast of India Recent Research in Science and Technology 1(4) 161–168 Available at -
  • Sealifebase Available at -
  • Samuel, VD; Chacko, D and Edward, JKP (2005) Preliminary study on the molluscan diversity of “the lost world’’– Dhanushkodi, east coast of India Proceedings of the National Seminar on Reef Ecosystem Remediation SDMRI Special Research Publication No.9 54-58 Available at -
  • Rao, KS (1974) Other commercial molluscs The commercial molluscs of India Bulletin Of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 25 141-151 Available at -
  • Sundaram, KS; Sarvesan, R; Mohamed, KH and Shanbhogue, SL (1969) Catalogue of molluscs, prawns, stomatopods and marine algae in the reference collections of the central marine fisheries research institute Bulletin Of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 9 1-52 Available at -
  • Philip, MB and Appukuttan, KK (1995) A checklist of gastropods landed at Sakthikulangara-Neendakara area CMFRI 138 9-10 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Dey, M and Mitra, A (2005) Molluscan community around Digha coast, West Bengal, India Journal of Environment and Sociobiology Social Environmental and Biological Association, Kolkata, India 2(1&2) 43-47 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2011-12-14

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