Eleotris fusca   (Forster,  1801) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Appleby, C.

Size: 16-26 cm.

Color: Dark brown to black in color, horizontal lines on body, young with spotted fins. Blackish green above, blackish orange below. Each scale of the side with a dark spot, forming together longitudinal lines. Fin membranes violet, rays orange. First dorsal fin with 2-3 longitudinal dark bands. Second dorsal, pectoral and caudal fin with small dark stripes. Base of pectoral fin above often with red dark blotch. Often a dark blotch posteriorly at the upper part of caudal peduncle. Young specimens often with dark stripe along supraopercular groove.

Body elongate, anteriorly cylindrical posteriorly compressed, height 4 1/4 - 4 3/4 in length, 5-6 in total length. Head pointed, depressed, 3-3 1/2 in length, 4-4 1/2 in total length. Frontal profile above eye straight to concave. Eye 5-6 in head, interorbital 1-1 2/3 eye diameter. Snout pointed, as long as eye, tip before upper part of eye. Anterior nostril near margin of snout, in a short tube. Lower jaw prominent. Maxillary extends to posterior part of eye, or not so far. Teeth in many rows, small. In upper jaw outer row a little enlarged, subequal. In lower jaw outer row and laterally inner row enlarged, unequal. In interorbital space two longitudinal mucous cannals, laterally of which a number of short transversal canals towards the eye. Two longitudinal mucous canals on cheek, crossed by canals radiating under eye. No pores on head. Supraopercular groove distinct. Spine of preopercle pointed, curved. Scales of body ctenoid posteriorly, cycloid anteriorly. Head scaled above between and behind the eyes, on cheek and opercle. Snout and below eye naked. There are 12-14 scales in a transversal line in middle of caudal peduncle. Caudal peduncle much less than 2 times longer than high. First dorsal fin obtuse, half of height of body, second, third and fourth rays are the longest. Second dorsal and anal fin higher than first dorsal fin, but lower than body. Pectoral fin rounded, longer than head without snout. Ventral fins shorter than pectoral fin. Caudal fin obtusely rounded, about as long as head, or a little longer. Diagnosis: (57)59-68 longitudinal line scales; preopercular spine present; (8)9-10 gillrakers on lower part of first branchial arch. Dorsal spines (total): 7; Dorsal soft rays (total): 7-9; Anal spines: 1; Anal soft rays: 8.

Dioecious, fertilization external, guarders, clutch tenders. Spawns eggs on submerged plants with small leaves. Female tends and fans the eggs until hatching and loosely guards the fry for a few days thereafter.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Eleotris incerta Blyth, 1861
Poecilia fusca Schneider, 1801
Culius fuscus (Forster, 1801)
(Senior synonym)
Culius niger (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824)
(Junior synonym)
Eleotris cavifrons Blyth, 1860
(Junior synonym)
Eleotris fornasinii Bianconi, 1855
(Junior synonym)
Eleotris fusca (Forster, 1801)
(Senior synonym)
Eleotris klunzingerii Pfeffer, 1893
(Junior synonym)
Eleotris mauritianus (non Bennett, 1832)
(Misapplied name)
Eleotris niger Quoy & Gaimard, 1824
(Junior synonym)
Eleotris nigra Quoy & Gaimard, 1824
(Junior synonym)
Poecilia fusca Forster, 1801
(Senior synonym)
Cheilodipterus culius Hamilton Buchanan, 1822
Eleotris mauritianus Bennett, 1831
Eleotris nigra Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1837
Eleotris brachyurus Bleeker, 1849
Eleotris pseudacanthopomus Bleeker, 1853
Eleotris nigra Bleeker, 1853
Culius niger Bleeker, 1856
Eleotris cavifrons Blyth, 1860
Eleotris fusca Gunther, 1861
Culius fuscus Bleeker, 1862
Eleotris fusca Day, 1865
Eleotris soaresi Playfair, 1866
Eleotris sandwicensis Vaillant and Sauvage, 1875
Eleotris fusca Gunther, 1877
Culius fuscus Bleeker, 1877
Eleotris cavifrons Day, 1878
Eleotris fusca Day, 1889
Eleotris (Culius) fusca Sauvage, 1891
Eleotris fusca Jordan and Snyder, 1902
Eleotris fusca Jordan and Evermann, 1902
Eleotris (Culius) fusca M. Weber, 1908
Eleotris (Culius) fuscus M. Weber, 1911
Eleotris (Culius) fuscus De Beaufort, 1913
Eleotris fusca Pietschmann, 1913
Eleotris fuscus M. Weber, 1913
Eleotris (Oxyeleotris) urophthalmoides M. Weber, 1913
Eleotris (urophthalmoides) juv. M. Weber and De Beaufort, 1915
Eleotris fusca McCulloch and Ogilby, 1919
Eleotris fusca Barnard, 1927
Eleotris fusca Herre, 1927
Eleotris fusca Fowler, 1928
Eleotris (Culius) fusca Pellegrin, 1933
Eleotris fusca Giltay, 1933
Eleotris fusca Herre, 1936
Eleotris pisonis fusca Tomiyama, 1936
Culius fuscus Aurich, 1938
Eleotris fusca Koumans 1941
Eleotris fuscus (Forster, 1801)

Common Name (s)
• Dusky Sleeper (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries, aquarium; marketed fresh.)
Cultured:  Unknown

Habitat:  Demersal, Estuarine
Trophic Level:  Secondary Consumer
Prey:  Benthic crustaceans, finfish, bony fish, insects, zoobenthos


• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands (Lat: 10) (Long: 93) INDIA
• Orissa, Mahanadi Estuary (Lat: 20.32) (Long: 86.75) INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai Coast INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Kerala, Ponnani Estuary INDIA (Record: 03/1997-02/1999)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Nicobar INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pamban INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• West Bengal (Lat: 21.45) (Long: 87.9) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Adyar Backwaters INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Cooum Estuary (Lat: 13.16) (Long: 80.26) INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Rao, DV; Devi, K and Rajan, PT (2000) An account of ichthyofauna of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Bay of Bengal Occasional paper no 178 Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI, Calcutta 1-434 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Rama Rao, KV (1995) Pisces Wetland ecosystem series 1: Fauna of Chilika lake ZSI, Calcutta 483-506 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Zoological Survey of India (Eds.) (1998) Fauna Of Mahanadi estuary, Orissa Estuarine ecosystem series no 3 ZSI, Kolkata 1-218 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • (2001) Fauna of Godavari estuary, Andhra Pradesh Estuarine ecosystem series 4 ZSI, Kolkata 1-166 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • Chatterjee, TK; Talukdar, RS and Mukherjee, AK (2000) Fish and fisheries of Digha coast of West Bengal Occasional paper no 188 Records of the Zoological Survey of India 31778 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Tikader, BK and Das, AK (1985) Glimpses of animal life of Andaman and Nicobar Islands ZSI, Kolkata 1-170 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Available at - http://www.itis.gov.
  • Harris, SA and Cyrus, DP (1995) Occurrence of fish larvae in the St Lucia estuary, Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa South African Journal of Marine Science 16 333 - 350 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Vazirani, TG (1965) Revision of the oriental species of the genus Plantambus Thomson (Insecta: Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) with descriptions of three new species Proceedings of the Zoological Society (Calcutta) 18 25-34
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at - http://www.fishbase.org
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in
  • Bijukumar, A and Sushama, S (2000) Ichthyofauna of Ponnani estuary, Kerala Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 42(1&2) 182-189 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in/PDF/coastal%20data.pdf
  • Koumans, FP (1953) The fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago A. J. Reprints agency, Karol Bagh, New Delhi 10 423 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Jones, S and Sujansingani, KH (1954) Fish and fisheries of the Chilka Lake with statistics of fish catches for the years 1948-1950 Indian Journal of Fisheries Indian Journal of Fisheries for the Indian Council of Agricultural Research 1 (1-2) 256-344 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/1634/2/Article_15.pdf
  • Murty, VS (1969) Catalogue of fishes (excluding from the Laccadives) in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 10 1-38 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/571/1/Bulletin_10.pdf
  • Das, AK and Roy, MKD (1989) A general account of the mangrove fauna of Andaman and Nicobar islands Fauna of conservation areas Zoological survey of India 1-152 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Das, P; De, SP; Bhowmik, RM; Pandit, IK; Sengupta, R; Nandi, AC; Thakurta, SC and Saha, S (2007) Piscine diversity of West Bengal Fishing chimes 27(5) 15-28 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Panikkar, NK and Aiyar, RG (1937) The brackish water fauna of Madras Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences, Section B Indian Academy of Sciences, Bangalore, India 6(5) 284-337 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2012-02-29

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