Littorina (Littorinopsis) scabra scabra   Linnaeus,  1758 (Sea Snail)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Gastropoda

Color: Dark brown, whitish.

The “rough” Littorina, which is one meaning of the Latin name scabra (another is “scabby,” which would also fit a brown-spotted shell) is an extremely ubiquitous species throughout the Indo-Pacific wherever there are mangroves or even wood pilings. Its comparatively large size would appear to make it easily visible were it not well camouflaged on mangrove trunks and branches. The relatively long synonymy is a partial indication of its variability. the species produces an almost endless variety of color and sculptural forms from the “typical” dark drown mosaicly banded scabra to the whitish rather smooth albicans described by Metcalfe. The morphological diversity is probably due to the fact that scabra is ovoviviparous and produces closely related, inbred populations within which variations or mutations may develop and are perpetuated. The same phenomenon takes place in the Atlantic subspecies, angulifera whose biology is similar to scabra (Lederking, 1954; Struhsaker,1966).

Fertilization is internal, and pelagic development is the rule, although several species have evolved ovoviviparity.

Synonym (s)
Helix scabra Linnaeus, 1758
Littorina (Littorinopsis) scabra scabra Rosewater, 1970
Littorina scabra Subba Rao and Mookherjee, 1975
Littorina (Littorinopsis) scabra scabra Rajagopal and Mookherjee, 1982

Common Name (s)
Economic Importance and Threats

Habitat:  Estuarine, Coastal


• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman (Lat: 10) (Long: 93) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Nicobar Islands (Lat: 7) (Long: 93) INDIA
• Andaman & Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Orissa, Hukitola INDIA (Record: 17/03/1964)
• Orissa, Chhatrapur INDIA (Record: 24/11/1962)
• West Bengal, Port Canning INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Tuticorin INDIA
• Kerala, Kochi INDIA
• Karnataka, Mangalore INDIA
• Maharashtra, Mumbai INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andamans INDIA
• East Coast INDIA
• West coast INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Chidiya Tapu INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Havelock (Lat: 11.97) (Long: 93) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Little Andaman (Lat: 10.75) (Long: 92.5) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Neil Island (Lat: 11.83) (Long: 93.05) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Ross Island (Lat: 11.67) (Long: 92.77) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Camorta INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Subba Rao, NV (2003) Indian seashells Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI, Kolkata (Part 1) 416 pp Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Zoological Survey of India (Eds.) (1998) Fauna Of Mahanadi estuary, Orissa Estuarine ecosystem series no 3 ZSI, Kolkata 1-218 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • Powell, AWB (1968) The Family Littorinidae in the Indo-Pacific Indo-Pacific Mollusca Delaware Museum of Natural History Grenville, Delaware, U.S.A 2(11) 417-506 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Poppe, GT and Poppe, P (1996) Conchology, Inc. Conchology, Inc. Available at -
  • Rao, NVS; Rao, KVS and Maitra, S (1991) Marine molluscs State fauna series 1: Fauna of Orissa Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta Part 3 1-175 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Subba Rao, NV and Dey, A (2000) Catalogue of marine molluscs of Andaman and Nicobar Islands Occasional paper no 187 Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI 1-323 Available at - NCL, Pune

Page last updated on:2012-06-29

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