Forskalia leuckarti   Bedot,  1893 (Hydrozoan)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Hydrozoa

Size: Colony grows upto 60 cm in length.

Pneumatophore: Small and slender.

Nectosome: With 8 or 9 spiral turns, each with 9 or 10 nectophores-multiserial.

Nectophores: 15-19 mm long; 15-20 mm broad; 6-8 mm thick. Two deep incisions on lateral sides dividing nectophore into two slightly unequal lobes at place of attachment to muscular lamella. With deep oblique lateral fold or inpocketing on either side of ostium. Characteristic brick-red, disc-shaped rete on pedicular canal from very early stage (2 mm in length). With two oval patches of nematocysts on ventral side.

Siphosome: 30 cm or more, bearing 40-50 gastrozooids. numerous bracts covering entire stem.

Gastrozooids: 10-20 mm long borne on long peduncles 12 mm or more in length. Gastric region with 8-12 rose-red hepatic ridges.

Tentacles: Tentillum ending in fiery red cnidoband with 2-4 spiral turns, non involucrate and unicornuate, large bean shaped nematocysts (0.51 mmX 0.16 mm) on lateral sides of cnidoband; with minute nematocyst (0.0003 mm) on long terminal filament.

Palpons: Vermiform, 30-50 mm long in expanded condition; enlarged terminal part with red liquid; in living condition discharging red liquid on agitation into surrounding water.

Gonodendroa: Up to 4 gonodendra between two gastrozooids, at base of single pedunculate palpons; female gonodendron larger, (30 mm) over topping male gonodendron, highly contractile, bifurcated at distal end, each branch bearing clusters of numerous medusoid female gonophores at various stages of growth. Male gonodendron with short stalk bearing fewer, long, oval shaped, medusoid gonophores with long pedicels. Male gonophores with 4 radial canals; females usually with 4 radial canals or with 6-8 radial canals or reticular.

Bracts: Very numerous overlapping like tiles on a roof; shape and size differ according to position. 4 or 5 bracts near cormidia leaf-like envelop bases of peduncles. 6-8 peduncular bracts in overlapping, imbricating rows, flattened and triangular in shape; pair of bracts, mirror images of each other; bent at right angle at proximal end and similarly bent bracteal canal tying on ventral side.

Synonym (s)
Forskalia leuckarti Bedot, 1893
Forskalia leuckarti Totton, 1965
Stephanomia contorta Milne Edwards, 1841

Common Name (s)
Economic Importance and Threats



• Bay of Bengal (Lat: 15) (Long: 90) INDIA
• Arabian Sea (Record: 1962-1965)
• Bay of Bengal (Record: 1962-1965)
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai Coast INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Daniel, R (1985) Fauna of India and the adjacent countries (Coelenterata: Hydrozoa: Siphonophora) ZSI 440 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Zoological Survey of India (Eds) (1991) Animal resources of India (Protozoa to Mammalia) ZSI 1-694 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at -
  • Boltovskoy, D (Ed.) Zooplankton of the South Atlantic Ocean Marine Species Identification Portal Available at -

Page last updated on:2011-09-08

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