Cynoglossus cynoglossus   (Hamilton Buchanan,  1822) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: FAO

Size: Maximum 20 cm; common 10 to 15 cm

Color: Reddish brown, with irregular brownish black spots, sometimes a portion of the spots confluent into seven or eight cross-bands.

Body flat and elongate, with dorsal and anal fins joined to caudal fin. Height 4.2-4.3, head 5.2-5.3. Eyes 15, close together, the upper slightly in advance of the lower. Angle of mouth one eye diameter behind lower eye, and much nearer to snout than to gill opening. Two nostrils on colored side, one between the eyes and a second tubular one before the lower eye. Scales ctenoid on both sides. Two lateral lines on colored side, divided by 15 to 16 scales.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Cynoglossus Hamiltonii, 1862
Cynoglossus brevis Gunther, 1862
Cynoglossus buchanani Day, 1869
Plagusia cynoglossa Cantor, 1850
Icania cynoglossa Kaup, 1858
Cynoglossus hamiltonii Gunther, 1862
Cynoglossus hamiltonii Day, 1888
Cynoglossus hamiltonii Duncker, 1904
Achirus cynoglossus Hamilton, 1822
(Senior synonym)
Arelia oxyrhynchos (Bleeker, 1851)
(Junior synonym)
Arelia sumatrensis (Bleeker, 1853)
(Junior synonym)
Cynoglossus bengalensis (Bleeker, 1853)
(Junior synonym)
Cynoglossus buchanani Day, 1870
(Junior synonym)
Cynoglossus deltae Jenkins, 1910
(Junior synonym)
Cynoglossus hamiltonii Gunther, 1862
(Junior synonym)
Cynoglossus oxyrhynchos (Bleeker, 1851)
(Junior synonym)
Cynoglossus semifasciatus (non Day, 1877)
(Misapplied name)
Cynoglossus sumatranus (Bleeker, 1853)
(Junior synonym)
Cynoglossus sumatrensis (Bleeker, 1853)
(Junior synonym)
Icania cynoglossa (Hamilton, 1822)
(Senior synonym)
Plagusia bengalensis Bleeker, 1853
(Junior synonym)
Plagusia cynoglossus (Hamilton, 1822)
(Senior synonym)
Plagusia oxyrhynchos Bleeker, 1851
(Junior synonym)
Plagusia sumatrana Bleeker, 1853
(Junior synonym)
Cynoglossus oxyrhynchus (Bleeker, 1851)

Common Name (s)
• Gangetic Tongue Sole (English)
• Bengal Tongue Sole (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries; marketed mostly fresh and frozen, also dried-salted.)

Habitat:  Benthic, Estuarine, Sandy, Muddy
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Zoobenthos


• West Bengal, Ganges Estuary INDIA
• Orissa, Jambu Island (Lat: 20.42) (Long: 86.72) INDIA
• West Bengal, Digha Coast (Lat: 21.61) (Long: 87.53) INDIA
• Kerala, Ponnani Estuary INDIA (Record: 03/1997-02/1999)
• West Bengal, Hugli Matla Estuary INDIA
• West Bengal, Digha Mohana (Lat: 21.61) (Long: 87.53) INDIA (Record: 1981-1982)
• Kerala, Calicut INDIA
• West Bengal (Lat: 21.45) (Long: 87.9) INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Khan, RA (2003) Fish faunal resources of Sunderban estuarine system with special reference to the biology of some commercially important species Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI, Kolkata 1-149 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • (2001) Fauna of Godavari estuary, Andhra Pradesh Estuarine ecosystem series 4 ZSI, Kolkata 1-166 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • Chatterjee, TK; Talukdar, RS and Mukherjee, AK (2000) Fish and fisheries of Digha coast of West Bengal Occasional paper no 188 Records of the Zoological Survey of India 31778 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Hussain, SM Brief report on biodiversity in the coastal areas of Pakistan p 113
  • Jabber, SMA; Khan, YSA and Rahman, MS (2001) Organochlorine pesticide residues in the muscles of three fishes from the Ganges estuary, Bangladesh International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences 27(2) 111-116 Available at - Zoological Records (Bangladesh)
  • Goswami, BCB (1992) Marine fauna of Digha coast of West Bengal, India Journal of Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 34 115-137 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Weber, M; Beaufort, LF (1929) The fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago E. J. Brill Ltd. 5 458 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Bijukumar, A and Sushama, S (2000) Ichthyofauna of Ponnani estuary, Kerala Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 42(1&2) 182-189 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at -
  • Fischer, W and Whitehead, PJP (1974) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Eastern Indian Ocean - Fishing Area 57 and Western Central Pacific - Fishing Area 71 FAO, Rome 2 Available at -
  • Gopalakrishnan, V (1971) The biology of the Hooghly-Matlah estuarine system (West Bengal, India) with special reference to its fisheries Journal of marine biological association of india Marine biological association of india 13(2) 182-194 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Manna, B and Goswami, BCB (1985) A check-list of marine and estuarine fishes of Digha, West Bengal, India Mahasagar- Bulletin of the National Institute of Oceanography NIO, Goa 18(4) 489-499 Available at -
  • Murty, VS (1969) Catalogue of fishes (excluding from the Laccadives) in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 10 1-38 Available at -
  • Biswas, KP (2009) Fishes around Indian Ocean Indian Mackerel, Rastrelliger kanagurta (Cuv) Daya publishing house Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Das, P; De, SP; Bhowmik, RM; Pandit, IK; Sengupta, R; Nandi, AC; Thakurta, SC and Saha, S (2007) Piscine diversity of West Bengal Fishing chimes 27(5) 15-28 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2012-01-09

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