Cephalopholis leopardus   (Lacepede,  1801) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Randall, J.E.

Size: Max length 24.0 cm TL(male/unsexed)

Color: Body orange to reddish, finely spotted with small bright red spots; 1 or 2 distinctive dusky to blackish occellated saddle-like blotches on caudal peduncle above; a dark brown streak from eye to edge of operculum. Pectoral fins yellowish orange; distal edges of dorsal and anal fins with a bright red streak, below this a white streak, then a dark red one.

A small sized serranid with a stout body. Mouth somewhat oblique, the maxillary (upper jaw) extending beyond posterior border of eye. Teeth villiform, forming rather broad bands, with a pair of short but strong canines on each side of symphysis of each jaw; teeth on vomer and palatines. Dorsal fin with 9 spines and 14 or 15 soft rays. Anal fin with 3 spines and 9 soft rays; second spine stronger and longer than third. Caudal fin rounded. Head covered with cycloid scales, on body ctenoid; lateral line with 72 to 87 scales; 6 or 7 rows of scales between lateral line and origin of dorsal fin.

Protogynous, external fertilization, nonguarders, open water/substratum egg scatterers.

Synonym (s)
Cephalopholis leoparda (Lacepede, 1801)
(Senior synonym)
Epinephelus leopardus (Lacepede, 1801)
(Senior synonym)
Epinephelus urodelops Schultz, 1943
(Junior synonym)
Labrus leopardus Lacepede, 1801
(Senior synonym)
Serranus homfrayi Day, 1871
(Junior synonym)
Serranus leopardus (Lacepede, 1801)
(Senior synonym)
Serranus spilurus Valenciennes, 1833
(Junior synonym)
Labrus leopardus Lacepede, 1802
Serranus leopardus Day, 1875

Common Name (s)
• Leopard Grouper (English)
• Leopard Cod (English)
• Leopard Coralcod (English)
• Leopard Hind (English)
• Red Spotted Rockcod (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries, Ornamental fish)

Habitat:  Reef Associated, Rocky
Trophic Level:  Tertiary Consumer
Prey:  Benthic crustaceans, fishes


• Tamil Nadu INDIA
• Kerala INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Mahatma Gandhi Marine National Park INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Rao, DV; Devi, K and Rajan, PT (2000) An account of ichthyofauna of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Bay of Bengal Occasional paper no 178 Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI, Calcutta 1-434 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Devi, K and Rao, DV (2003) Poisonous and venomous fishes of Andaman Islands, Bay of Bengal Occasional paper no 211 Records of The Zoolgical Survey of India ZSI, Calcutta 25934 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Heemstra, E; Heemstra, P; Smale, M; Hoopers, T and Pelicier, D (2004) Preliminary checklist of coastal fishes from the Mauritian island of Rodrigues Journal of natural history Taylor and Francis 38(23-24) 3315 - 3350 Available at - taylorandfrancis.metapress.com/ index/
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at - http://www.fishbase.org
  • Letourneur, Y; Chabanet, P; Durville, P; Taquet, M; Teissier, E; Parmentier, M; Quero, JC and Pothin, K (2004) An updated checklist of the marine fish fauna of Reunion Island, south-western Indian Ocean Cybium 28(3) 199-216
  • Allen, GR and Mohammed, A (2003) Coral Reef Fishes of Indonesia Zoological Studies 42(1) 26299 Available at - Digital Information Resource Center, Pune.
  • Mehdi, A; Yves, L; Michel, P and Salvat, B (1998) Factors influencing spatial distribution of fish communities an a fringing reef at Mauritius, S.W. Indian Ocean Environmental Biology of Fishes Kluwer Academic Publishers 53 169-182 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Garpe, KC and Ohman, MC (2003) Coral and fish distribution patterns in Mafia Island marine park Tanzania fish habitat interactions Hydrobiologia Kluwer Academic Publishers 498 191-211 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Talwar, PK and Kacker, RK (1984) Commercial sea fishes of India ZSI, Calcutta 997 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 4 Available at - http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/ad468e/ad468e00.HTM#Contents
  • Murty, VS (1996) Marine ornamental fishes of India Proceedings of the Seminar on Fisheries - A Multibillion Dollar Industry, Madras CMFRI 23-34 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/7786/1/678-Mur.pdf
  • Talwar, PK (1990) Fishes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands: A synoptic survey Journal of the Andaman Science Association Andaman Science Association, Port Blair 6(2) 71-102 Available at - NIO,Goa

Page last updated on:2011-08-19

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