Aetomylaeus nichofii   (Bloch & Schneider,  1801) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Elasmobranchii

Image copyrights: Iranian Fisheries Research Organization

Size: 24-65 cm WD; 200 - 235 mm (at birth)

Color: Dark brown dorsally with 3 to 5 greyish-blue bands on its disc. These bands disappear with age. The underside is whitish.

Body is diamond-shaped and its disc is about twice as wide as it is long. The head is distinctly elevated from the body and the large eyes and spiracles are located at the sides of the head. The mouth is straight, without buccal processes on its floor. Teeth in each jaw are in series of 7. The pelvic fins are fleshy and extend beyond the tip of the small single dorsal fin at the tail base. The tail is long and whip-like and carries no spines. The skin is smooth in young and very finely tuberculated in adults.

Dioecism, internal fertilization, bearers, exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialized structures. Gives birth to ~4 pups; born at ~17 cm WD.

It is naturally rare.

Synonym (s)
Aetomylaeus nichofii (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
(Senior synonym)
Aetomylaeus niehofii (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
(Senior synonym)
Aetomyleus nichofii Bloch & Schneider, 1801
Aetomylus huletti Smith, 1953
(Ambiguous synonym)
Myliobatis nieuhofii Bloch & Schneider, 1801
(Senior synonym)
Raja niehofii Bloch & Schneider, 1801
(Senior synonym)

Common Name (s)
• Banded Eagle Ray (English)
• Nieuhofs Eagle Ray (English)
• Mookarah tinkee (Telugu)
• Barbless Eagleray (English)
• Nichofs Eagle Ray (English)
• Striped Eagleray (English)
• Karaj (Gujarati)
• Kaniyen-thirandi (Malayalam)
• Boland (Marathi)
• Tuppa-kollee (Tamil)
• Karaj (Gujarati)
• Bolad (Marathi)
• Kaniyen- Thirandi (Malayalam)
• Kuruvi- Thirukkai (Malayalam)
• Tuppa - Kollee (Tamil)
• Mookaran Tonkee (Telugu)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Utilized for its meat, but of limited value due to its small size.)
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(Intensive and increasing trawling)

Habitat:  Benthic, Demersal, Estuarine, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Molluscs, prawns, crabs, worms and bony fishes
IUCN Status:  Vulnerable


• Gulf of Oman
• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam INDIA (Record: 10/1999-11/2000)
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai Coast INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA (Record: 1948-1950)
• West Bengal (Lat: 21.45) (Long: 87.9) INDIA
• East Coast INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Venkateswarlu, T and Rama Rao, KV (1986) Valid scientific names to Day's fish fauna of India Miscellaneous publication, occasional paper no 87 Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI p 48 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Rama Rao, KV (1995) Pisces Wetland ecosystem series 1: Fauna of Chilika lake ZSI, Calcutta 483-506 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Chatterjee, TK; Talukdar, RS and Mukherjee, AK (2000) Fish and fisheries of Digha coast of West Bengal Occasional paper no 188 Records of the Zoological Survey of India 31778 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Ocean Biogeographic Information System Available at -
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at -
  • Hussain, SM Brief report on biodiversity in the coastal areas of Pakistan p 113
  • Allen, GR and Mohammed, A (2003) Coral Reef Fishes of Indonesia Zoological Studies 42(1) 26299 Available at - Digital Information Resource Center, Pune.
  • Suppa, M; Suebsin, S; Suri, V and Songsirikul, T (1997) Checklist of fishes in Thailand Office of Environmental Policy and Planning 1-353 Available at - CMFRI, Kochi
  • Al-Abdessalaam, TZS (1995) Marine species of the Sultanate of Oman p 412 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at -
  • Sujatha, K (2002) Batoid fishes off Visakhapatnam, north east coast of India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 44(1 & 2) 155-162 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at -
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at -
  • Raje, SG; Sivakami, S; Mohanraj, G; Manoj Kumar, PP; Raju, A and Joshi, KK (2007) An atlas on the Elasmobranch fishery resources of India CMFRI Special publication CMFRI, Cochin, India. 95 253pp Available at -
  • Jones, S and Sujansingani, KH (1954) Fish and fisheries of the Chilka Lake with statistics of fish catches for the years 1948-1950 Indian Journal of Fisheries Indian Journal of Fisheries for the Indian Council of Agricultural Research 1 (1-2) 256-344 Available at -
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at -
  • Das, P; De, SP; Bhowmik, RM; Pandit, IK; Sengupta, R; Nandi, AC; Thakurta, SC and Saha, S (2007) Piscine diversity of West Bengal Fishing chimes 27(5) 15-28 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2012-01-02

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