Albula vulpes   (Linnaeus,  1758) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Freitas, R.

Max. size: 104 cm TL

Max. weight: 8636

Color: Silvery with dusky fins, base of pectorals yellow.

Dorsal much nearer to caudal than to end of snout. Origin of ventrals below last rays of dorsal. Silvery, olivaceous above, with faint dark streaks along the rows of scales. Black spot on tip of snout and nasal opening. Fins hyaline. Upper border of dorsal and caudal dusky. Young ones passing through leptocephaloid metamorphosis. Body is elongate and fusiform. Last ray of dorsal and anal fins not prolonged, head region naked, spot and band absent on head, margin of nasal pore not black. Bluntly conical snout extends beyond inferior mouth. Pectoral and pelvic axillary scales present, a single long scale on each side of membrane between each ray of dorsal and anal fins. Dorsal fin may show above surface. Tolerates oxygen poor water by inhaling air into a lung-like airbladder. Flesh is bony and not esteemed. Dorsal spines (total): 0 - 0, Dorsal soft rays (total): 15 - 19, Anal spines: 0, Anal soft rays: 7 - 9, Vertebrae: 69 - 74. Branchiostegal rays 12-14.

Dioecious, external fertilization, nonguarders of eggs.

Max. age: 19 years.

There are reports of ciguatera poisoning.

Synonym (s)
Albula conorynchus Bloch & Schneider, 1801
(Junior synonym)
Albula forsteri non Valenciennes, 1847
Albula glossodonta non Forsskal, 1775
Albula goreensis Valenciennes, 1847
(Junior synonym)
Albula neoguinaica non Valenciennes, 1847
Albula parrae Valenciennes, 1847
(Junior synonym)
Albula plumieri Bloch & Schneider, 1801
(Junior synonym)
Albula rostrata Gray, 1854
(Junior synonym)
Albula seminuda non Valenciennes, 1847
(Junior synonym)
Albula virgata Jordan & Jordan, 1922
(Junior synonym)
Albula vulpes Linnaeus, 1758
(New combination)
Amia immaculata Bloch & Schneider, 1801
(Junior synonym)
Argentina glossodonta non Forsskal, 1775
Atopichthys esunculus Garman, 1899
(Junior synonym)
Butyrinus bananus Lacepede, 1803
(Junior synonym)
Clupea brasiliensis Bloch & Schneider, 1801
(Junior synonym)
Clupea macrocephala Lacepede, 1803
(Junior synonym)
Engraulis bahiensis Spix, 1829
(Junior synonym)
Engraulis sericus Spix, 1829
(Junior synonym)
Esox argenteus non Forster, 1801
Esox vulpes Linnaeus, 1758
(Original combination)
Esunculus costai Kaup, 1856
(Junior synonym)
Glossodus forskalii Spix & Agassiz, 1829
(Junior synonym)

Common Name (s)
• Elimeen
• Miemas
• Bonefish (English)
• Roundjaw Bonefish (English)
• Poomeen
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Game fish
Causes ciguatera poisoning)
Cultured:  Unknown

Habitat:  Pelagic
Trophic Level:  Secondary Consumer
Prey:  Crabs, shrimps, squids, bonyfish, other molluscs, phytoplankton, annelids


• Tamil Nadu, Chennai Coast INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Bangaram INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Rameswaram INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy Island (Lat: 8.11) (Long: 73.3) INDIA
• Lakshadweep INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Wafar, MVM (2003) Checklists of reef fauna Available at -
  • Rao, DV; Devi, K and Rajan, PT (2000) An account of ichthyofauna of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Bay of Bengal Occasional paper no 178 Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI, Calcutta 1-434 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Devi, K and Rao, DV (2003) Poisonous and venomous fishes of Andaman Islands, Bay of Bengal Occasional paper no 211 Records of The Zoolgical Survey of India ZSI, Calcutta 25934 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre Available at -
  • Zoological Survey of India (Eds) (1991) Animal resources of India (Protozoa to Mammalia) ZSI 1-694 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Talwar, PK and Kacker, RK (1984) Commercial sea fishes of India ZSI, Calcutta 997 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Available at -
  • Hussain, SM Brief report on biodiversity in the coastal areas of Pakistan p 113
  • Suppa, M; Suebsin, S; Suri, V and Songsirikul, T (1997) Checklist of fishes in Thailand Office of Environmental Policy and Planning 1-353 Available at - CMFRI, Kochi
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at -
  • Weber, M; Beaufort, LF (1965) The fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago E.J. Brill, Leiden, Holland 2 404 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at -
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at -
  • Jones, S and Kumaran, M (1980) Fishes of the Laccadive Archipelago The Nature Conservation and Aquatic Sciences Service, Trivandrum, Kerala 760 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Dr. Kumaraguru, AK (2000) Studies on socioeconomics of Coral Reef resource users in the Gulf of Mannar coast, South India Centre for Marine and Coastal studies School of Energy, Environment and Natural Resources Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, India Available at -
  • Jones, S. (1969) Catalogue of fishes from the Laccadive Archipelago in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute. Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 8 1-35 Available at -
  • Murty, VS (1969) Catalogue of fishes (excluding from the Laccadives) in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 10 1-38 Available at -
  • Jones, S and Kumaran, M (1959) The fishing industry of Minicoy Island with special reference to the tuna fishery Indian Journal of Fisheries Indian Council of Agricultural Research 6 (1) 30-57 Available at -
  • Silas, EG and Pillai, PP (1982) Bait fishes Resources of tunas and related species and their fisheries in the Indian Ocean, CMFRI Bulletin, 32 CMFRI 32 136-140 Available at -

Page last updated on:2011-09-28

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