Aetobatus narinari   (Euphrasen,  1790) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Elasmobranchii

Image copyrights: BĂ©arez, P

Size (male): 65-330 cm WD.

Max. published weight: 230.0 kg.

Color: Numerous white spots on black or bluish disc; white below.

An eagleray with a long snout, flat and rounded like a duck's bill, a thick head, and a pectoral disc with sharply curved, angular corners, and no caudal fin; jaws usually with single row of flat, chevron-shaped teeth. Each tooth a crescent-shaped plate joined into a band. Long whiplike tail, with a long spine near the base, behind small dorsal fin. No spines on disk. Dorsal spines (total): 0; Anal spines: 0.

Dioecism, internal fertilization, bearers, exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures. Bears up to 4 young. Width at birth 17-35 cm. The male chases the female in mid water, then nibbles on her dorsal surface. The female stops swimming to begin copulation. The male bites the female on a pectoral fin and bends one clasper forward, then attempts an abdomen to abdomen copulation with either clasper, usually mid-water. Copulation lasted for 20 seconds to 1 minute.

Synonym (s)
Aetobates narinari Euphrasen, 1790
Aetobatis latirostris Dumeril, 1861
(Junior synonym)
Aetobatis narinari Euphrasen, 1790
Aetobatus narinari Euphrasen, 1790
Aetomylus maculatus non Gray, 1834
Myliobatis eeltenkee Ruppell, 1837
(Junior synonym)
Myliobatis macroptera McClelland, 1841
(Junior synonym)
Myliobatis punctatus Macleay & Macleay, 1886
Myliobatus maculatus non Gray, 1834
Raia quinqueaculeata Quoy & Gaimard, 1824
(Junior synonym)
Raja narinari Euphrasen, 1790
(Original combination)
Stoasodon narinari Euphrasen, 1790
Raia narinari Euphrasen, 1790
Aetobatis narinari Day, 1878
Aetobatus narinari Munro, 1955
Stoasodon narinari Smith, 1949

Common Name (s)
• Flying Ray (English)
• Lang Spotted Eagle Ray (English)
• Valval Thirukai (Tamil)
• Kurivi Thirukai (Tamil)
• Curooway Tiriki (Tamil)
• Spotted Eagle Ray (English)
• Duckbill Ray (English)
• Duckbil Ray (English)
• Lady Ray (English)
• Leopard Ray (English)
• Mottled Eagle Ray (English)
• Spotted Stingray (English)
• Spotted Whipray (English)
• Sunfish (English)
• Whip (English)
• Whip Ray (English)
• White Spotted Eagle Ray (English)
• Bonnet Skate (English)
• Skate (English)
• Spotted Bonnetray (English)
• Spotted Duckbill Ray (English)
• Wagaliu (Gujarati)
• Kakkathirandi (Malayalam)
• Vaval (Malayalam)
• Wagli (Malayalam)
• Vaval Thiru (Tamil)
• Spot Edged Ray (English)
• Bishop Ray (English)
• Eagle Ray (English)
• Vaval thirukkai
• Wagali (Gujarati)
• Bolad (Marathi)
• Wagali (Marathi)
• Pulli Thirandi (Malayalam)
• Kakka Thirandi (Malayalam)
• Kuruvi Thirukai (Tamil)
• Vaval thirukkai (Tamil)
• Eel - Tenkee (Telugu)
• Chili (Oriya)
• Madi
• Vaval
• Ra - Ta - Charm - Dal
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial, Dangers
(Minor commercial; flesh edible, tail used as a decorative item, utilized for its meat and cartilage, used as gamefish
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(Intense and unregulated nature of inshore fisheries)

Habitat:  Bentho Pelagic, Reef Associated, Estuarine, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Secondary Consumer
Prey:  Bivalves but also eats shrimps, crabs, octopus, worms, whelks and small fishes
IUCN Status:  NearThreatened


• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam INDIA (Record: 10/1999-11/2000)
• Lakshadweep, Agatti INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA
• Tamil Nadu INDIA (Record: 1998)
• Kerala INDIA (Record: 1998)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Great Nicobar Island INDIA (Record: 08/2000-07/2003)
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai INDIA (Record: 2002-2007)
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Arabian Sea (Lat: 7.85) (Long: 77.93) INDIA (Record: 02/1985-06/1987) (Depth: 42 mts)
• Southwest Coast INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Mandapam INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Gujarat INDIA
• West Bengal (Lat: 21.45) (Long: 87.9) INDIA
• East Coast INDIA

Literature Source(s)
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Page last updated on:2012-01-17

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