Aetobatus flagellum   Bloch and Schneider,  1801 (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Elasmobranchii

Image copyrights: Zukan

Size: 72-83 cm disc width

Max. published weight: 13.9 kg

Colour : Upper surface of the disc and pelvic fins uniform dark greenish bronze coloured, without spots.

Disc rhomboid, much broader than longer;head distinctly recognizable from the rest of the body; snout conical, elongated about 1.8 times in mouth width; longitudinal groove between eyes on top of head which is extended to the midline of its shoulder; floor of the mouth with a row of papillae. Outer corner of pectoral fins pointed; skin naked; tail with two serrated , strong spines. Dioecious, internal fertilization, bearers, exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures.

Synonym (s)
Aetobates flagellum Annandale 1909
Aetobates flagellum Bleeker 1852
Aetobates flagellum Bloch & Schneider 1801
Aetobates flagellum Fowler 1930
Aetobates flagellum German 1913
Aetobates flagellum Richardson 1846
Aetobates narinari Day 1889
Aetobates narinari Day 1878
Aetobates narinari Fowler 1941
Aetobates narinari Lloyd 1907
Aetobates narinari Pillay 1929
Aetobates narinari Suvatti 1936
Aetobatus flagellum (Bloch & Schneider) 1801
(Senior synonym)
Aetobatus narinari Misra 1949
Aetobatus narinari Misra 1952
Aetobatus narinari Misra & Menon 1958
Raja flagellum Bloch & Schneider 1801
(Senior synonym)
Raja flagellum Schnider 1801
Raja guttata Shaw 1804

Common Name (s)
• Boladi (Marathi)
• Plain Eagleray (English)
• Longheaded Eagleray (English)
• Curroway tiriki (Tamil)
• Eel tenkee (Telugu)
• Vauval thirukkai
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries, utilized for its meat, but of limited value due to its rarity and small size. )
Threats:  Natural threats, Anthropogenic
(Naturally very uncommon species with limiting life history characteristics.
Highly susceptible to a variety of fishing methods in regions where the level of exploitation of marine resources is extremely high. )

Habitat:  Bentho Pelagic, Estuarine
Trophic Level:  Secondary Consumer
Prey:  Fishes, crustaceans and molluscs
IUCN Status:  Endangered


• West Bengal, Digha Coast (Lat: 21.61) (Long: 87.53) INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam INDIA (Record: 10/1999-11/2000)
• Tamil Nadu INDIA
• Kerala INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• East Coast INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Rama Rao, KV (1995) Pisces Wetland ecosystem series 1: Fauna of Chilika lake ZSI, Calcutta 483-506 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Available at -
  • Ocean Biogeographic Information System Available at -
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at -
  • Hussain, SM Brief report on biodiversity in the coastal areas of Pakistan p 113
  • Goswami, BCB (1992) Marine fauna of Digha coast of West Bengal, India Journal of Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 34 115-137 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at -
  • Sujatha, K (2002) Batoid fishes off Visakhapatnam, north east coast of India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 44(1 & 2) 155-162 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Hanfee, F (1999) Management of shark fisheries in two Indian coastal states: Tamil Nadu and Kerala Case studies of the management of elasmobranch fisheries. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 378 Rome, FAO Part 1 (11) Available at -
  • Dr. Kumaraguru, AK (2000) Studies on socioeconomics of Coral Reef resource users in the Gulf of Mannar coast, South India Centre for Marine and Coastal studies School of Energy, Environment and Natural Resources Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, India Available at -
  • Raje, SG; Sivakami, S; Mohanraj, G; Manoj Kumar, PP; Raju, A and Joshi, KK (2007) An atlas on the Elasmobranch fishery resources of India CMFRI Special publication CMFRI, Cochin, India. 95 253pp Available at -
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at -

Page last updated on:2011-10-11

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