Acanthurus triostegus   (Linnaeus,  1758) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order:Perciformes
Family:Acanthuridae

Image copyrights: Randall, J.E.

Description
Size: 21-27 cm.

Color: Body olivaceous gray, with 4 vertical stripes (1 stripe on head across the yellow eye; 1 on caudal peduncle); shading to white ventrally, often with a sharp line of demarcation.

Height 1.8-1.9, 2.3 in length with caudal. Head 3.1-3.3, 3.7-3.9 in length with caudal. Profile of head somewhat convex before eyes, concave on snout, more so in older specimens that in young. Eye 3.7-3.9, 2.2-2.5 in snout, and 1.1-1.2 in convex inter orbital space. Teeth deeply lobate, 6-8 in each ramus of both upper and lower jaw. Nostrils rather close together, just before eye, both with a low rim, which is posteriorly produced in to a triangular flap in that of the anterior nostril. Origin of dorsal above gill opening. First dorsal spine about half diameter of eye, and one third of second. Following spines gradually increasing in length to the sixth to ninth spines, which are sub equal, and equal to distance between hind border of maxillary and eye. Soft dorsal as high as spinous part, rounded behind. First anal spine slightly shorter than first dorsal one, second spine three fourths of third, which equals longest dorsal spines. Soft anal less deep than dorsal, rounded behind. Pectorals triangular, as long as snout and eye. Ventrals as long as snout, or half diameter of eye shorter. Caudal truncate. Sharp, forward-pointing, erectile spine on each side of caudal peduncle which folds down into a groove. Scales minute. Teeth with denticulations on sides and top. Gill rakers 18-22 in anterior row, 19-24 in posterior row. Dorsal spines (total): 9 - 9; Dorsal soft rays (total): 22 - 26; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 19 - 22.

Dioecism, external fertilization, nonguarders, open water/substratum egg scatterers. Form spawning aggregations. During spawning, clouds of eggs and sperm are preyed upon by eagle rays which are often present during spawning. Size of metamorphosis from post-larva stage to juvenile is 3.2 cm.


Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.


Synonym (s)
Acanthurus hirudo Bennett, 1829
(Junior synonym)
Acanthurus pentazona Bleeker, 1850
(Junior synonym)
Acanthurus subarmatus Bennett, 1840
(Junior synonym)
Acanthurus triostegus Linnaeus, 1758
(New combination)
Acanthurus triostegus marquesens Schultz & Woods, 1948
(Junior synonym)
Acanthurus triostegus sandvicensi Streets, 1877
(Junior synonym)
Acanthurus triostegus triostegus Linnaeus, 1758
(Misspelling)
Acanthurus triostegus triostegus Linnaeus, 1758
(New combination)
Acanthurus zebra Lacepede, 1802
(Junior synonym)
Chaetodon couaga Lacepede, 1802
(Junior synonym)
Chaetodon triostegus Linnaeus, 1758
(Original combination)
Harpurus fasciatus Forster, 1801
(Junior synonym)
Hepatus sandvicensis Streets, 1877
(Junior synonym)
Hepatus triostegus Linnaeus, 1758
(New combination)
Rhombotides pentazona Bleeker, 1850
(Junior synonym)
Rhombotides triostegus Linnaeus, 1758
(New combination)
Teuthis australis Gray, 1827
(Junior synonym)
Teuthis elegans Garman, 1899
(Junior synonym)
Teuthis sandvicensis Streets, 1877
(Junior synonym)
Teuthis triostegus Linnaeus, 1758
(New combination)
Teuthis troughtoni Whitley, 1928
(Junior synonym)
Acanthurus triostegus Bloch and Schneider, 1801
Acanthurus triostegus Cuvier and Valenciennies, 1835
Harpurus fasciatus Lichtenstein, 1844
Acanthurus pentazona Bleeker, 1851
Acanthurus triostegus Montrouzier, 1856
Acanthurus triostegus Gunther, 1861
Rhombotides triostegus Bleeker, 1863
Acanthurus triostegus Hutton, 1872
Acanthurus triostegus Gunther, 1875
Acanthurus triostegus Day, 1876
Acanthurus triostegus Macleay, 1881
Acanthurus zebra de Vis, 1884
Acanthurus triostegus Hilgendorf, 1883
Acanthurus triostegus Waite, 1894
Teuthis triostegus Seale, 1901
Teuthis triostegus Jordan and Evermann, 1902
Hepatus triostegus Steindachner, 1906
Hepatus triostegus Jordan and Seale, 1906
Teuthis triostegus Kendall and Goldsborough, 1911
Teuthis triostegus Kendall and Radcliffe, 1912
Acanthurus triostegus M. Weber, 1913
Hepatus triostegus Ogilby, 1916
Teuthis triostegus McCulloch, 1922
Teuthis triostegus Barnard, 1927
Acanthurus triostegus Herre, 1927
Hepatus triostegus Fowler, 1928
Hepatus triostegus Fowler and Bean, 1929
Hepatus triostegus Fowler, 1931
Acanthurus triostegus Herre, 1936
Hepatus triostegus Fowler, 1938
Teuthis troughtoni Whitley and Colefax, 1938
Teuthis triostegus Marshall, 1941
Acanthurus triostegus L. P. Schultz, 1943
Acanthurus triostegus triostegus L. P. Schultz, 1948
Acanthurus triastegus (Linnaeus, 1758)
(Misspelling)
Acanthurus triostegust (Linnaeus, 1758)
(Misspelling)

Common Name (s)
• Kozhimeen (Tamil)
• Rabolu (Mahl)
• Kurichil (Malayalam)
• Nelalan (Malayalam)
• Varipara (Malayalam)
• Kozhimeen (Tamil)
• Mootah (Telugu)
• Convict surgeonfish (English)
• Convict surgeon (English)
• Surgeonfish
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial, Dangers
(Fisheries, aquarium; Ornamental fish
Causes ciguatera poisoning)
Cultured:  Unknown

Ecology
Habitat:  Reef Associated
Trophic Level:  Secondary Consumer
Prey:  Benthic crustaceans, hard corals, other benthic invertebrates, benthic algae/weeds, phytoplankton, cnidarians, detritus, molluscs
Predator:  Fishes (Cephalopholis argus, Conger cinereus, Fistularia petimba, Lutjanus fulvus, Epinephelus merra)

Biogeography


• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands (Lat: 12.5) (Long: 92.75) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands (Lat: 10) (Long: 93) INDIA
• Lakshadweep (Lat: 11) (Long: 72.5) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai Coast INDIA
• INDIA (Record: 01/1991-06/1992)
• Lakshadweep, Kavaratti Atoll (Lat: 10.55) (Long: 72.63) INDIA (Record: 01/1991-06/1992)
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands INDIA
• INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Great Nicobar Island INDIA (Record: 08/2000-07/2003)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, North Reef Island INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Agatti Island (Lat: 10.85) (Long: 78.46) INDIA (Record: 03/1954)
• Lakshadweep, Amini Island (Lat: 11.08) (Long: 72.75) INDIA (Record: 03/1954)
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Mahatma Gandhi Marine National Park INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Chettalatt INDIA (Record: 05/01/1987-06/02/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Kilttan INDIA (Record: 05/01/1987-06/02/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Kadamatt INDIA (Record: 05/01/1987-06/02/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Amini INDIA (Record: 05/01/1987-06/02/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Bitra INDIA (Record: 09/02/1987-25/02/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Tinnakara INDIA (Record: 09/02/1987-25/02/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Bangaram INDIA (Record: 09/02/1987-25/02/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Agatti INDIA (Record: 09/02/1987-25/02/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Andrott INDIA (Record: 06/03/1987-01/04/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Kavaratti INDIA (Record: 06/03/1987-01/04/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Suheli INDIA (Record: 06/03/1987-01/04/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Kalpeni INDIA (Record: 06/03/1987-01/04/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA (Record: 06/03/1987-01/04/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Chettalatt INDIA (Record: 11/1993-01/1997)
• Lakshadweep, Kilttan INDIA (Record: 11/1993-01/1997)
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Agatti INDIA (Record: 11/1993-01/1997)
• Lakshadweep, Amini INDIA (Record: 11/1993-01/1997)
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy Island (Lat: 8.11) (Long: 73.3) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• West Bengal (Lat: 21.45) (Long: 87.9) INDIA

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