Parapenaeopsis hardwickii   (Miers,  1878) (Prawn)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Arthropoda
Class: Malacostraca
Order:Decapoda
Family:Penaeidae

Image copyrights: Digitalarchives.tw

Description
Max. size: 150 mm in length.

Color: Usually grey, sometimes with a touch of pink, rarely pink; rostrum and postrostral crest dark grey; pereopods brownish pink; pleopods usually reddish pink; uropods and telson grey or pink, each with a dark grey median longitudinal stripe.

Rostrum armed with 8 to 10 dorsal teeth; in females, sigmoidal, toothless on distal 1/3 to 1/2, upcurved and exceeding antennular peduncle; in large males curving downward, unarmed portion absent and reaching middle of second antennular article; both shapes found in young males. Epigastric tooth small; postrostral crest almost reaching posterior margin of carapace, grooved in females; longitudinal suture reaching 3/4 or more of carapace length; telson armed with 3 to 5 (usually 4) pairs of small mobile spines; antennular flagella at least 0.6 times the length of carapace, usually longer; epipod and basial spine present on first and second pereopods; basis of third pereopod unarmed. Petasma (in males) with distomedian projections wing-like, wider than long, their anterior margin often crenulate; distolateral projections short and directed laterally; proximolateral lobes very large, curved dorsally. Thelycum (in females) with anterior plate concave, rounded anteriorly; posterior plate flat, with a pair of anterolateral tooth-like projections, anteromedian margin slightly convex and bearing a transverse row of long setae hairs). Orbital spine not much more than a sharp angle, postocular sulcus moderately deep. Antennular flagella not sexually dimorphic, slightly longer than their peduncle. In the petasma the distomedian projections not extending beyond tips of distolateral projections, about as long as wide, their anterolateral margins distinctly crenulated; distolateral projections pointing laterally; proximal lateral enlargements of petasma very large and rounded. In the thelycum the anterior plate is slightly concave, wider than long, anteriorly and posterolaterally rounded; sternal plate between 5th pereopods flat, with a pair of anterolateral tooth-like process directed anteriorly, and a concave anteromedian margin bearing a transverse row of long setae.

It is heterosexual, distinguished externally by the secondary sexual characters like petasma and appendix masculina in male and the thelycum in female. Adults breed in deep waters and juveniles migrate to shallow waters.


Synonym (s)
Penaeus hardwickii Miers, 1878
(Senior synonym)
Parapenaeopsis sculptilis hardwickii Alcock, 1906

Common Name (s)
• Spear Shrimp (English)
• Tiny
• Spear Prawn (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries, marketed fresh, dried or canned. )

Ecology
Habitat:  Demersal, Sandy, Muddy

Biogeography


• Maharashtra, Thane Bassein Creek System (Lat: 19.17) (Long: 72.92) INDIA
• Maharashtra, Mumbai Coast INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Kakinada Coast INDIA
• Maharashtra INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh INDIA
• Gujarat, Veraval INDIA (Record: 09/1995-05/2000)
• Maharashtra, Mumbai INDIA
• INDIA
• PAKISTAN
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Kakinada INDIA
• West Bengal INDIA
• Orissa INDIA
• Orissa, Puri INDIA (Record: 1987-2006)
• Gujarat, Off Kandla INDIA (Record: 1986-1987)
• Andhra Pradesh, Off Godavari Estuary INDIA
• North West Coast INDIA
• North East Coast INDIA
• East Coast INDIA

Literature Source(s)
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Page last updated on:2011-12-15

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