Parapenaeopsis hardwickii   (Miers,  1878) (Prawn)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Malacostraca

Image copyrights:

Max. size: 150 mm in length.

Color: Usually grey, sometimes with a touch of pink, rarely pink; rostrum and postrostral crest dark grey; pereopods brownish pink; pleopods usually reddish pink; uropods and telson grey or pink, each with a dark grey median longitudinal stripe.

Rostrum armed with 8 to 10 dorsal teeth; in females, sigmoidal, toothless on distal 1/3 to 1/2, upcurved and exceeding antennular peduncle; in large males curving downward, unarmed portion absent and reaching middle of second antennular article; both shapes found in young males. Epigastric tooth small; postrostral crest almost reaching posterior margin of carapace, grooved in females; longitudinal suture reaching 3/4 or more of carapace length; telson armed with 3 to 5 (usually 4) pairs of small mobile spines; antennular flagella at least 0.6 times the length of carapace, usually longer; epipod and basial spine present on first and second pereopods; basis of third pereopod unarmed. Petasma (in males) with distomedian projections wing-like, wider than long, their anterior margin often crenulate; distolateral projections short and directed laterally; proximolateral lobes very large, curved dorsally. Thelycum (in females) with anterior plate concave, rounded anteriorly; posterior plate flat, with a pair of anterolateral tooth-like projections, anteromedian margin slightly convex and bearing a transverse row of long setae hairs). Orbital spine not much more than a sharp angle, postocular sulcus moderately deep. Antennular flagella not sexually dimorphic, slightly longer than their peduncle. In the petasma the distomedian projections not extending beyond tips of distolateral projections, about as long as wide, their anterolateral margins distinctly crenulated; distolateral projections pointing laterally; proximal lateral enlargements of petasma very large and rounded. In the thelycum the anterior plate is slightly concave, wider than long, anteriorly and posterolaterally rounded; sternal plate between 5th pereopods flat, with a pair of anterolateral tooth-like process directed anteriorly, and a concave anteromedian margin bearing a transverse row of long setae.

It is heterosexual, distinguished externally by the secondary sexual characters like petasma and appendix masculina in male and the thelycum in female. Adults breed in deep waters and juveniles migrate to shallow waters.

Synonym (s)
Penaeus hardwickii Miers, 1878
(Senior synonym)
Parapenaeopsis sculptilis hardwickii Alcock, 1906

Common Name (s)
• Spear Shrimp (English)
• Tiny
• Spear Prawn (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries, marketed fresh, dried or canned. )

Habitat:  Demersal, Sandy, Muddy


• Maharashtra, Thane Bassein Creek System (Lat: 19.17) (Long: 72.92) INDIA
• Maharashtra, Mumbai Coast INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Kakinada Coast INDIA
• Maharashtra INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh INDIA
• Gujarat, Veraval INDIA (Record: 09/1995-05/2000)
• Maharashtra, Mumbai INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Kakinada INDIA
• West Bengal INDIA
• Orissa INDIA
• Orissa, Puri INDIA (Record: 1987-2006)
• Gujarat, Off Kandla INDIA (Record: 1986-1987)
• Andhra Pradesh, Off Godavari Estuary INDIA
• North West Coast INDIA
• North East Coast INDIA
• East Coast INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • (2001) Invertebrate zoology collections Available at -
  • Ramakrishna; Sarkar, J and Talukdar, S (2003) Marine invertebrates of Digha coast and some recomendations on their conservation Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI, Kolkata 101(3-4) 1 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Krishnamurti, AJ and Nair, VR (1999) Concentration of metals in shrimps and crabs Thane-Bassein creek system, Maharashtra Indian Journal of Marine Sciences CSIR, New Delhi 28 92-95 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Jones, S The crustacean fishery resources of India Proceedings on the symposium on crustacea Marine Biological Association of India, Mandapam Camp 1328-1339 Available at - CASMB, Parangipettai
  • (1982) A colour guide to the fishes of the south China sea and the Andaman sea Seafood Industries Association, Singapore Available at - CMFRI, Kochi
  • George, MJ (1979) Taxonomy of Indian prawns (Penaeidae, Crustacea, Decapoda) Contributions to Marine Sciences Dedicated to Dr.C.V.Kurian 21-59 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Bal, DV and Rao, KV (1984) Marine fisheries Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited 470 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Sealifebase Available at -
  • Dineshbabu, AP (2003) Fishery and some biological aspects of penaeid shrimps along Saurashtra region Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 45(2) 195-207 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Holthuis, LB (1980) FAO species catalogue. Vol. 1 Shrimps and prawns of the world. An annotated catalogue of species of interest to fisheries FAO Fisheries Synopsis - S125Vol.01 FAO, Rome 1 1-271 Available at -
  • Available at -
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 5 Available at -
  • Dr. Kumaraguru, AK (2000) Studies on socioeconomics of Coral Reef resource users in the Gulf of Mannar coast, South India Centre for Marine and Coastal studies School of Energy, Environment and Natural Resources Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, India Available at -
  • Sundaram, KS; Sarvesan, R; Mohamed, KH and Shanbhogue, SL (1969) Catalogue of molluscs, prawns, stomatopods and marine algae in the reference collections of the central marine fisheries research institute Bulletin Of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 9 1-52 Available at -
  • Ramani, K; Ammini, PL; Srinivasan, J; Najeemudeen, SH; Beena, MR; George, KP; Seynudeen, MB; Subbaraman, G; Anandan, K; Khambadkar, LL; Augustine, SK; Pugazhendi, D; Rudhramurthy, N; Subramani, S; Seetharaman, S; Batcha, HK and Sankaralingam, S (2010) An overview of marine fisheries in India during 2007 Marine Fisheries Information Service CMFRI, Kochi 203 1-14 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Ammini, PL; Khambadkar, LL and Augustine, SK (2008) A brief report on the marine fisheries of Puri, Orissa Marine Fisheries Information Service Technical and Extension Series CMFRI 195 6-10 Available at -
  • Nair, VR; Govindan, K; Ramaiah, N and Gajbhiye, SN (1993) Fishery potential of the Gulf of Kachchh Journal of the Indian Fisheries Association Indian Fisheries Association 23 91-103 Available at -
  • George, MJ (1969) Taxonomic considerations and General distribution Prawn fisheries of India Bulletin Of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 14 5-48 Available at -
  • Rao, PV (1969) Genus Parapenaeopsis Alcock 1901 Prawn fisheries of India Bulletin Of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 14 127-157 Available at -
  • George, MJ (1972) Zoogeographic distribution of Indian penaeidae Indian Journal of Marine Sciences Scientific Publishers 1 89-93 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Kurian, CV and Sebastian, VO (2002) The Indian prawns of commercial importance Prawns and prawn fisheries of India Hindustan publishing corporation 74-96 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at -

Page last updated on:2011-12-15

Back to Search