Ciconia nigra   Linnaeus,  1758 (Bird)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Aves

Image copyrights: Jiri Bohdal

Size: standing c. 106 cm to top of head.

Color: Adult- Above, including head and neck, black highly glossed with green, bronze and purple. Below, lower breast, belly, flanks and under tail-coverts white. Immature-Head, neck and upper breast dark brown, each feather tipped paler. Mantle dull brownish black. Underparts white. Nestling (in down), snow-white with lemon-yellow bill and bright rosy legs which later turn almost white.

Habits: Not appreciably different from those of the White Stork except that perphaps it usually keeps more to marshy ground and the neighbourhood of rivers and inland waters and is even more shy and wary. Seen in pairs, small parties of 10 or 12, or large herds

Breeding: Season- in central Europe April/May. Nest- a large sstick platform built in a lofty pine, oak or other tree, 10 to 25 meters from the ground; never on buildings. Eggs- 3 to 5, blunt oval, white.

Synonym (s)
Ardea nigra (Linnaeus, 1758)

Common Name (s)
• Black stork (English)
• Surmal (Hindi)
• Kalo dhonk (Gujrati)
• Kala karchocha (Marathi)
• Nalla Konga (Telugu)
• Karimbakam (Malayalam)
Economic Importance and Threats
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(The main threat to this species is habitat degradation.)

Habitat:  Estuarine
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  frog, fish, crustacea, insects and occasionally young or disabled rodents birds, etc.
IUCN Status:  Least Concern


• Kerala, Kol wetlands (Lat: 10.33) (Long: 75.96) INDIA
• Kerala, Kol wetlands (Lat: 10.66) (Long: 76.18) INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Nameer, PO (2005) Wetlands and waterfowl conservation in kerala with special reference to Ramsar sites kerala environment congress 2005 Centre for environment and development 97-112 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • NaturePhoto-CZ Available at -
  • Vernacular names of the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent Buceros, Envis newsletter: Avian Ecology & Inland Wetlands 62pp Available at -
  • Manakadan R and Pittie A (2001) Standardized English names of the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent BUCEROS Envis Newsletter: Avian ecology and inland wetland 6(1) 26pp Available at -
  • Kumar A, sati JP and Tak CK (2003) Checklist of Indian Waterbids Buceros Envis Newsletter: Avian ecology and inland wetlands 8(1) 30pp Available at -
  • Ali S and Ripley SD (1968) Handbook of the birds of India and Pakistan Oxford university press 1 1-368pp Available at - NIO
  • Sivaperuman C and Jayson EA (2000) Birds of Kol wetland, Thrissur, Kerala Zoo's print journal 15(10) 344-349pp Available at -

Page last updated on:2012-08-06

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