Gonyaulax spinifera   (Claparede & Lachmann, 1859) Diesing,  1866 (Dinoflagellate)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Peridinea

Image copyrights: Mats Kuylenstierna & Bengt Karlson

It is both heterotrophic (eat other organisms) as well as a autotrophic (photosynthetic) species.

Reproduction is both sexual and asexual.

Synonym (s)
Gonyaulax levanderi (Lemmermann) Paulsen, 1907
Peridinium spiniferum Claparede & Lachmann, 1859
(Homotypic synonym)
Tectatodinium pellitum Wall, 1967
(Heterotypic synonym)
Nematosphaeropsis labyrinthea (Ostenfeld) Reid, 1974
(Heterotypic synonym)

Common Name (s)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Dangers
(Known for producing dangerous toxins, particularly when in large numbers, called "red tides" because the cells are so abundant they make water change color. Also they can produce non-fatal or fatal amounts of toxins in predators (particularly shellfish) that may be eaten by humans.)

Habitat:  Pelagic
Predator:  Marine microorganisms and animal larvae.


• Karnataka, Old Port of Mangalore (Lat: 12.86) (Long: 74.88) INDIA (Record: 28/12/2005 - 13/01/2006)

Literature Source(s)
  • Harnstrom, k; Karunasagar, I and Godhe, A (2009) Phytoplankton species assemblages and their relationship to hydrographic factors-a study at the old port in Mangalore, coastal Arabian sea Indian journal of marine sciences NISCAIR 38(2) 224-234 Available at - http://nopr.niscair.res.in/handle/123456789/4673
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • (2006) Algaebase Available at - http://www.algaebase.org/
  • SMHI Available at - http://www.smhi.se/

Page last updated on:2012-02-03

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