Hipposcarus harid   (Forsskal,  1775) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Randall, J.E.

Size: 30-58 cm.

Weight: 2.3 kg.

Color: 2 adult color phases; initial phase- light tan, the edges of the scales paler, shading to whitish ventrally, dorsal edge of eye blue; dorsal and anal fins pale yellowish with light blue or blue or blue-green borders (some specimens with a blue longitudinal band in middle of fins); caudal fin pale yellowish, the rays prominently streaked with light blue; pectoral fins pale with yellowish rays, the second ray pale orange, edged basally with light blue; pelvic fins light orangish with a pale blue leading edge; dental plates white in both phases; terminal phase- body green, the scales edged in pale orange except on sides of abdomen and thorax which are solid green; a row of blue spots on abdomen on scale row below pectoral fin base, with a few blue spots below this in region of anal fin origin; thorax and abdomen pale orange mid ventrally; dorsal part of head green with 2 irregular pale orange-yellow bands extending anteriorly from eye and 3 posteriorly; cheek, side of snout and ventral part of head pale orange; lips edged in orange, sub marginally blue (in Indian Ocean but not Red Sea individuals, the orange of lips continues from the corner of the mouth to opercular margin, dividing the head into a dorsal green part and a ventral pale green region); dorsal and anal fins light orange-yellow with blue borders and 1 or 2 longitudinal rows of blue spots in middle of fins; caudal fin blue with a broad band of orange in each lobe and a short longitudinal streak of orange on central part of median 7 rays; pectoral fins with upper margin blue, following by a zone of deep yellow, rest of fin pale orangish, pelvic fins light orange with a blue lateral edge.

Body depth at pelvic fin base contained 2.7 to 2.9 times in standard length. Upper and lower head profiles slope gradually, producing a characteristic long snout. Teeth fused to form dental plates in upper and lower jaws; upper jaw encloses lower with mouth closed; dental plates smooth, the individual teeth only visible at margins; dental plates narrow, 1.5 to 2.0 times in orbit diameter, lips covering nearly all of dental plates; upper dental plate with 1 or 2 canines posteriorly; 4 (occasionally 3) median predorsal scales; 3 rows of cheek scales (4 in Western Indian Ocean specimens), the dorsal row with 7 to 10 scales, the 2nd row with 6 to 10 scales, 3rd row with 2 to 8 scales, 4th row (if present) with 2 to 9 scales; cheek scales small, in a sub triangular patch. Pectoral fins with 13 (occasionally 12 or 14) branched rays; caudal fin emarginate in small specimens, becoming markedly so in large specimens, the lobes often greatly produced in the terminal phase.

Synonym (s)
Hipposcarus harid vexillus Smith, 1959
Scarus harid Schultz, 1969

Common Name (s)
• Candelamoa parrotfish (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries, aquarium)

Habitat:  Reef Associated, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Benthic algae


• Lakshadweep INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 3 Available at - http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/ad468e/ad468e00.HTM#Contents
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at - http://www.fishbase.org
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at - eprints.cmfri.org.in/3975/1/Special_Publication_No_12_Revised.pdf

Page last updated on:2011-12-02

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