Epinephelus rivulatus   (Valenciennes,  1830) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Randall, J.E.

Size: 35 cm.

Color: Head and body generally brownish; each body scale usually with a bluish-white spot; 4 irregular dark bars from base of dorsal fin to ventral part of body, the first curving forward onto opercle, the second to midline of belly and the last 2 running to anal fin base; a fifth dark bar across peduncle; a dark saddle blotches on nape. Usually 3 or 4 wavy violet lines radiating from eye and s few short segments and spots of the same color on cheek and opercle. Pectoral fin dark grey, with a dark red semicircular blotch covering most of the base. Chest and isthmus pale, with dark reddish-brown markings. Dark brown pigment in crease along base of spinous dorsal fin.

Body depth contained 2.6 to 3.2 times in standard length. Preopercle serrate, the serrae at the angle enlarged; lower gillrakers 13 to 16. Dorsal fin with 11 spines and 16 to 18 soft rays; anal fin with 3 spines and 8 soft rays; pectoral rays 17 to 19; caudal fin rounded. Pored lateral line scales 50 to 53; lateral scale series 86 to 102.

Protogynous, external fertilization, nonguarders, open water/substratum egg scatterers. A monandric species.

Synonym (s)
Epinephelus rhyncholepis (Bleeker, 1859)
Epinephelus grammatophorus Boulenger, 1903

Common Name (s)
• Halfmoon Grouper (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(An excellent food fish, but rather small to be prized by fishermen. Sold fresh and dried salted in local markets.)
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(The main threats to Epinephelus rivulatus are overfishing and loss of habitat. Episodes of coral reef bleaching in the range of this species are likely to occur increasingly as SST increases.)

Habitat:  Benthic, Reef Associated, Rocky
IUCN Status:  Least Concern


• Gujarat INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 4 Available at - http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/ad468e/ad468e00.HTM#Contents
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at - http://www.fishbase.org
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at - http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  • Kizhakudan, SJ; Nair, KVS and Zala, MS Demersal Finfish Resources of Gujarat Sustainable fisheries development: Focus on Gujarat 57-66 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/6060/

Page last updated on:2011-07-12

Back to Search