Tylosurus acus melanotus   (Bleeker,  1850) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Shao, K.T.

Size: Max length 100.0 cm TL (male/unsexed); common length 115 cm TL (male/unsexed)

Color: Body dark bluish above, silvery white below.

Body elongate, subcylindrical. Upper and lower jaws greatly elongated and studded with sharp teeth; teeth nearly vertical. A conspicuous appendage sometimes present at tip of lower jaw. Dorsal fin with 24 to 27 soft rays; anal fin with 22 to 24 soft rays. Pectoral fin 8.0 to 12.4, pelvic fin 10.0 to 14.1 times in body length. Caudal fin deeply forked, with a long lower lobe. Scales small; lateral line running low down, with a small black keel on caudal peduncle.

Dioecious, external fertilization, nonguarder, open water/substratum egg scatterers. Oviparous. Eggs may be found attached to objects in the water by tendrils on the egg's surface.

Remarks: Values in the above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Belone melanotus Bleeker, 1850
Thalassosteus appendiculatus (Klunzinger, 1959)
Belone appendiculatus Klunzinger, 1871
(Junior synonym)
Belone melanotus Bleeker, 1850
(Senior synonym)
Strongylura appendiculata (Klunzinger, 1871)
(Junior synonym)
Strongylura auloceps Fowler & Bean, 1923
(Junior synonym)
Strongylura melanota (Bleeker, 1850)
(Senior synonym)
Thalassosteus appendiculatus (Klunzinger, 1871)
(Junior synonym)
Tylosurus acus melanotus (Bleeker, 1850)
(Senior synonym)
Tylosurus melanota (Bleeker, 1850)
(Senior synonym)
Tylosurus melanotus (Bleeker, 1850)
(Senior synonym)

Common Name (s)
• Keel Jawed Longtom (English)
• Thaludandithuntholi (Mahl)
• Tol (Marathi)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries; marketed mostly fresh.)

Habitat:  Reef Associated, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Tertiary Consumer
Prey:  Small fishes


• Karnataka, Mangalore INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Mandapam INDIA
• Maharashtra, Ratnagiri INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Talwar, PK and Kacker, RK (1984) Commercial sea fishes of India ZSI, Calcutta 997 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at - http://www.fishbase.org
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean; (Fishing area 51). FAO, Rome 1 Available at - http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/ad468e/ad468e00.HTM#Contents

Page last updated on:2010-04-07

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