Synantheopsis parulekari   Den Hartog & Vennam  1993 (Sea Anemone)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Anthozoa

Size: Column of the specimens 7 to 8 cm long

Color: The column is white to pale yellowish or pink, the base yellowish white.

Column distally expanding into a wide, somewhat flaring oral disc ca. 5.5 cm across, and proximally ending into a distinct basal disc. Column narrowest just above the base. Upper, flaring part of the column, a zone of some 1.5 to 2 cm, densely set with large, prominent, button-shaped verrucae of ca. 1.5-2 mm in cross-section, except near the crenulate margin where they are much smaller. On the crenulate margin itself these verrucae take the shape of a dense crown of obtuse, somewhat papilla-like to vesicle-like outgrowths (which might be referred to as pseudo-acrorhagi) with a small adherent area on the outer face. The rest of the column is smooth to slightly wrinkled. A slight constriction, separating the flaring, verrucate distalmost part of the column from the rest of it, does not coincide with the position of the sphincter. Tentacles numerous, approximately 384 in hexamerous arrangement; they are simple, relatively short, and acute, ca. 8-10 mm long (in preserved condition).

Arrangement of mesenteries regularly hexamerous in five cycles according to the scheme 6 + 6 + 12 + 24 + 48 = 96 pairs, the number being proximally and distally equal. A complete sixth cycle of minute mesentery pairs without any trace of filaments or gonads is present in the distal region of the holotype; in the paratype from the type locality the sixth cycle is internally visible in the column-wall without actually emerging. Mesentery cycles I-IV, including the directives, are perfect and fertile, inserting at different levels of the stomodaeum wall; the mesenteries of cycle I are connected with the stomodaeum over its entire length, those of cycle IV only with the oral-most part. Cycle V is more or less microcnemic, sterile and devoid of simple filamental cord, but with trilobed filamental cord in its distal-most part. Gonads and filaments of subsequent mesentery cycles extend over different stretches of the mesenterial edges, reaching distal-most and least proximally in the youngest cycle and most proximally and least distally in the oldest cycle. There are two pairs of directives connected with conspicuous, strongly developed siphonoglyphs with long aboral slips extending at least halfway down the column. Oral stomata distinct; marginal stomata minute. Marginal sphincter circumscript, somewhat elliptical, very weak in relation to body size, ca. 0.25-0.5 mm in diameter in mounted sections. Endodermal circular muscle layer well-developed with distinct muscle processes which are better developed around the coelenteric apertures of the verrucae, so as to assume the character of mini-sphincters. Retractors of the (macro-) mesenteries well-developed, forming a broad diffuse band with slightly branched mesogloeal lamellae. Parietobasilar muscles rather short and blunt, not forming a free flap in the lower part of the body. Basilar muscles weak. Zooxanthellae rather common in the distal-most parts of the filaments and in sparse numbers in the endoderm of tentacles and oral disc.

Synonym (s)
Actinogeton sultana Parulekar 1968
Synantheopsis primus England 1992

Common Name (s)
Economic Importance and Threats

Habitat:  Sandy, Coastal


• Gujarat, Okha INDIA (Record: 1988)
• Maharashtra, Mumbai INDIA (Record: 1968)

Literature Source(s)
  • Hartog, JCD and Vennam, J (1993) Some Actiniaria (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) from the west coast of India Zoologische Mededelingen, Leiden Naturalis 67(42) 601-637 Available at -
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -

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