Bunodosoma goanensis   Den Hartog & Vennam  1993 (Sea Anemone)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Anthozoa

Color: The column, tentacles and oral disc of live specimens are entirely brownish crimson to brick red in color.

Base adherent, circular to semi-circular, up to ca. 3.5 x 3 cm across. Column densely covered with non-adhesive vesicular verruca, mostly with no clear arrangement due to the state of contraction of the specimens, but in some less contracted specimens a clear arrangement can be observed in 96 endocoelic longitudinal rows; verrucae in middle and lower part of the column simple, tending to become compound distally. Each row ends distally in a short marginal lobe, on its inner aspect provided with a distinct acrorhagus; lobes more or less arranged in two alternate crowns of slightly different size, with smallish and larger acrorhagi, respectively. In some specimens there are also small acrorhagi in connection with the exocoels. Marginal region in several specimens, both semi-expanded and contracted, more or less crenate or undulating. Oral disc without special characters; contracted tentacles short and acute, their number exactly 192 in full-grown, regular specimens.

Mesenterial arrangement basically hexamerous in five cycles, according to the scheme: 6 + 6 + 12 + 24 + 48 = 96, but slight deviations are not uncommon, the number of mesentery pairs varying between 94 and 100. Two pairs of directives connected with distinct siphono-glyphs. In some of the well-developed specimens that were dissected all mesenteries were perfect and fertile, the directives excluded. Oldest mesentery cycles united with stomodaeum over its entire length, the youngest cycle just reaching the oral-most part. Oral and marginal stomata distinct. Sphincter circumscript, distinctly pinnate to palmate, more or less orbicular to somewhat elongate in cross-section, moderately strong to strong with diameter varying between ca. 0.75 x 0.5 to 2.0 x 1.5 mm. Retractors of the mesenteries moderately strong, diffuse. Parietobasilar muscles distinct. No zooxanthellae.

Sexes separate; no indications of asexual reproduction.

Synonym (s)

Common Name (s)
Economic Importance and Threats

Habitat:  Rocky, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Gastropods


• Goa, Anjuna beach INDIA (Record: 1989)
• Maharashtra, Malvan INDIA (Record: 1993)
• Maharashtra, Ratnagiri INDIA (Record: 1993)
• Tamil Nadu, Kanniyakumari INDIA (Record: 1987)
• Gujarat, Okha INDIA (Record: 1987)

Literature Source(s)
  • Hartog, JCD and Vennam, J (1993) Some Actiniaria (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) from the west coast of India Zoologische Mededelingen, Leiden Naturalis 67(42) 601-637 Available at - http://hdl.handle.net/2264/2739
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org

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