Anthopleura anjunae   Den Hartog & Vennam  1993 (Sea Anemone)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Anthozoa

Color: Column of live individuals dark greenish brown with distinct, pale to whitish verrucae with a reddish central area. Acrorhagi creamy to reddish. Base pale. Pattern of oral disc and tentacles variable. Tentacles semi-translucent, creamy to greyish, above with opaque creamy spots and cross-bars. Oral disc with numerous creamy to yellow and some dark radii. Directive radii white to cream in four expanded specimens shown in the available color slides, running from the corners of the mouth to the directive tentacles and standing out against the dark central area of the oral disc. In addition, all specimens show a conspicuous brightly yellow streak in each of the corners of the mouth. Preserved specimens (in formalin-sea water) are dirty greyish to purplish brown with greyish tentacles and a pale base.

Base more or less circular to elliptical in outline, ca. 7.5 x 7.5 to 27 x 20 mm. Column entirely densely covered with conspicuous button- to cup-shaped verrucae, about 1-1.5 mm in cross-section, except near the margin where they are smaller. The verrucae are often distinctly stalked and strongly adherent to foreign particles such as fragments of shells, large sand grains, barnacles and calcareous worm tubes. In most specimens their arrangement is obscured due to the state of contraction, but even in more or less expanded specimens there are no distinct longitudinal rows, except distally, where short series of 3-6 smaller verrucae end marginally in a short more or less distinct marginal lobe, mostly with a distinct subglobular acrorhagus on its inner aspect. These lobes alternate with even shorter rows ending blindly at the margin or in a very indistinct lobe. Details of oral disc and tentacular arrangement rather obscured; tentacles rather short, their number up to about 160.

Mesenteries as a rule more or less hexamerously arranged in four regular to slightly irregular cycles and part of a fifth cycle, their number proximally and distally equal or practically so. Mesentery cycles I-III perfect, inserting at different levels of the stomodaeum; cycle IV as a rule just reaching the oral edge of the stomodaeum. In none of the specimens examined cycle V was complete; therefore the number of mesentery pairs is probably always, or nearly always, less than 96. Due to the common occurrence of slight deviations from the hexamerous arrangement it proved not always possible to distinguish between the mesenteries of cycles I and II, but their sum varies between 10 and 14 pairs. Cycle III and IV usually complete, i.e. occupying all the secondary and tertiary exocoels and thus equaling the sum of the mesenteries of the previous cycles. Cycle V usually incomplete with pairs missing in the exocoels between cycles I and IV or cycles II and IV, never between cycles III and IV. Mesentery cycle I-IV fertile, the directives excluded. Cycle V poorly developed, imperfect, as a rule sterile, and only provided with trilobed filamental cord along its distal-most free edge; poorly developed gonads may be present in only some mesenteries of this cycle. There are two pairs of directives connected with distinct siphonoglyphs. In some there is a double set of both directives and siphonoglyphs. Marginal stomata small but distinct, situated just below the sphincter; oral stomata larger. Sphincter rather strong, circumscript, ca. 0.5-1 mm in cross-section, located just below the fossa. Retractors of mesenteries well-developed, diffuse to restricted diffuse, outer face crenate in transverse section (undoubtedly correlated with the state of contraction). Parietobasilar muscles distinct, often with a small free flap. No zooxanthellae.

The rather regular anatomy of Anthopkura anjunae and the absence of fission scars suggest that the species does not reproduce asexually.

Synonym (s)
Anthopleura midori Parulekar 1968
Anthopleura midori Uchida & Muramatsu 1958

Common Name (s)
Economic Importance and Threats

Habitat:  Rocky, Coastal


• Goa, Anjuna beach INDIA (Record: 04/1989-05/1989)
• Kerala, Kochi INDIA (Record: 1986)
• Tamil Nadu, Mandapam INDIA (Record: 19/02/1963)

Literature Source(s)
  • Hartog, JCD and Vennam, J (1993) Some Actiniaria (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) from the west coast of India Zoologische Mededelingen, Leiden Naturalis 67(42) 601-637 Available at -
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -

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