Mobula mobular   (Bonnaterre,  1788) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Elasmobranchii

Image copyrights: Hofinger, E.

Size: Max length 560 cm WD.

Color: Dark brown to bluish black above, whitish ventrally.

Disc subrhomboid, its width twice or more times as long. Snout in form of two curled cephalic horns; eyes prominent. Mouth ventral, well behind head. Spiracles small. Teeth in numerous rows. Single dorsal fin, its origin above pelvic fin bases. Tail slender, whip-like, more than twice length of disc, without cutaneous folds, with a serrated spine. Skin smooth.

Dioecious, internal (oviduct) fertilization, internal live bearers. Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialized structures.

Synonym (s)
Raja mobular Bonnaterre, 1788
Mobula mobula Misra, 1969
Aodon cornu Lacepede, 1798
(Senior synonym)
Apterurus fabroni Rafinesque, 1810
(Junior synonym)
Cephaloptera giorna (Lacepede, 1803)
(Junior synonym)
Cephaloptera tatraniana van Hasselt, 1823
(Junior synonym)
Cephalopterus edentula Griffini, 1903
(Junior synonym)
Cephalopterus giornae (Lacepede, 1803)
(Junior synonym)
Manta mobular (Bonnaterre, 1788)
(Senior synonym)
Mobula auriculata Rafinesque, 1810
(Junior synonym)
Mobula diabolus (Shaw, 1804)
(Ambiguous synonym)
Mobula mobular (Bonnaterre, 1788)
(Senior synonym)
Raia fabroniana Lacepede, 1800
(Junior synonym)
Raia mobular Bonnaterre, 1788
(Senior synonym)
Raja cephaloptera Bloch & Schneider, 1801
(Junior synonym)
Raja diabolus Shaw, 1804
(Junior synonym)
Raja giorna Lacepede, 1803
(Junior synonym)
Squalus edentulus Brunnich, 1768
(Ambiguous synonym)

Common Name (s)
• Horny Ray (English)
• Shing Pakat (Marathi)
• Devil Ray
• Devil Fish (English)
• Timri (Gujarati)
• Mhorch (Marathi)
• Karaj (Marathi)
• Wagla (Kannada)
• Yeliki (Tamil)
• Komun Tiriki (Tamil)
• Eregoodoo Tenkee (Telugu)
• Chinnadeyya Puteku (Telugu)
• Hatti Sankusa (Oriya)
• Enugutenkee (Oriya)
• Kottar
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(Giant devilrays are also accidentally captured in longlines, purse seines, trawls and fixed traditional tuna traps “tonnare”. They are also occasionally caught as bycatch. Their epipelagic habits make devilrays particularly vulnerable to oil spills and to disturbance from high levels of maritime traffic.)

Habitat:  Pelagic
Trophic Level:  Tertiary Consumer
Prey:  Pelagic fishes and crustaceans
IUCN Status:  Endangered


• Maharashtra, Mumbai Coast INDIA (Record: 1984)
• West Coast INDIA (Record: 1984)
• North West Coast INDIA
• Southwest Coast INDIA
• East Coast INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Talwar, PK and Kacker, RK (1984) Commercial sea fishes of India ZSI, Calcutta 997 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at -
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at -
  • Raje, SG; Sivakami, S; Mohanraj, G; Manoj Kumar, PP; Raju, A and Joshi, KK (2007) An atlas on the Elasmobranch fishery resources of India CMFRI Special publication CMFRI, Cochin, India. 95 253pp Available at -

Page last updated on:2011-04-01

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