Gymnura tentaculata   (Muller & Henle)  1841 (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Elasmobranchii

Color: Greenish gray dorsally, with irregular round spots of dark brown in young; in adults dark spots and blotches of yellowish green; tail faintly barred; ventral side of disc whitish.

Disc about 2 times as wide as long, markedly flattened dorso-ventrally; snout with a small apical projection. Spiracles open upwards, each with a short pointed tentacle in its posterior angle. Tail whip-like, about 2.2 times in length of disc, with faint upper and lower cutaneous folds; a minute serrated caudal spine present. Small dorsal fin at base of tail; base of dorsal fin more than half length of inner edge of pelvic fin. Mouth wide and transverse, without buccal processes on floor of mouth. Teeth small, in numerous diagonal rows; each tooth with a single sharply pointed cusp. Skin smooth.

Synonym (s)
Aetoplatea tentaculata Valenciennes, 1841
Gymnura (Aetoplatea) tentaculata Misra, 1969

Common Name (s)
• Tentacled Butterfly Ray (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial



• Off Andhra Pradesh Coast INDIA (Record: 1984)
• Off Orissa Coast INDIA (Record: 1984)
• Off West Bengal Coast INDIA (Record: 1984)
• West Bengal (Lat: 21.45) (Long: 87.9) INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Rao, DV; Devi, K and Rajan, PT (2000) An account of ichthyofauna of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Bay of Bengal Occasional paper no 178 Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI, Calcutta 1-434 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Khan, RA (2003) Fish faunal resources of Sunderban estuarine system with special reference to the biology of some commercially important species Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI, Kolkata 1-149 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Hussain, SM Brief report on biodiversity in the coastal areas of Pakistan p 113
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at -
  • Mishra, SS and Krishnan, S (2003) Marine fishes of Pondicherry and Karaikal Records of the zoological survey of india ZSI 53 pp Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Subba Rao, NV and Sastry, DRK (2005) Fauna of Marine National Park, Gulf of Kuchchh (Gujarat) ZSI 79 pp Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at -
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at -
  • Talwar, PK and Kacker, RK (1984) Commercial sea fishes of India ZSI, Calcutta 997 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Morphbank Florida State University, School of Computational Science, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4026 USA Available at -
  • Raje, SG; Sivakami, S; Mohanraj, G; Manoj Kumar, PP; Raju, A and Joshi, KK (2007) An atlas on the Elasmobranch fishery resources of India CMFRI Special publication CMFRI, Cochin, India. 95 253pp Available at -
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at -
  • Das, P; De, SP; Bhowmik, RM; Pandit, IK; Sengupta, R; Nandi, AC; Thakurta, SC and Saha, S (2007) Piscine diversity of West Bengal Fishing chimes 27(5) 15-28 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2013-04-05

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