Parupeneus macronemus   (Lacepede,  1801) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Randall, J.E.

Size: 40-145 mm

Color: Upper sides of head and body light tan to dusky; sides and below whitish, a broad black horizontal stripe from snout through eye ending below posterior rays of second dorsal or dorsolateral portion of caudal peduncle; a large black spot on caudal peduncle. In some fresh specimens sides of abdomen rosy and a light area present posterior to the base of soft dorsal. Anterior margin of spinous dorsal dusky, rest of the fin light. Soft dorsal with a broad blackish basal band, rest of the fin light tan and often with light stripes. Anal pale to light tan, sometimes with stripes. Caudal transparent, upper and lower border blackish.

Head 2.8-3.2 in standard length, 3.6-4.0 in total length. Depth of body 3.3-3.6 in standard length, 4.2-4.6 in total length. Eye diameter 4.4-5.7 in head, 2.2-3.1 in snout and 1.2-1.5 in interorbital space. Teeth strong, widely spaced in a single series in jaws, no teeth on vomer and palatines. Barbels extending to a vertical from the level of opercular border. First dorsal fin spine minute, second strong but flexible at tip and much shorter than third, it being equal to snout and ½ eye diameter together. Pectoral fin shorter than ventral by about ½ eye diameter. Last ray of dorsal and anal fins elongated in large specimens.
Number of spines in the first dorsal fin: VIII; number of spines and rays in the second dorsal fin: i, 8; number of spines and rays in the anal fin: I, i, 6; number of rays in the pectoral fin: 16-17; number of spines and rays in the ventral fin: I, 5; number of scale rows along the lateral line: 29-31; number of horizontal scale rows usually counted from origin of the dorsal fin to the lateral line and from anal origin to the lateral line: 2 ½ +1+6 ½ ; gill raker count: 7-8+1+23-25.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Mullus lateristriga Cuvier, 1829
(Junior synonym)
Mullus macronemus Lacepede, 1801
(Senior synonym)
Mullus macronema Lacepede, 1802
Parupeneus macronema Weber and de Beaufort, 1931
Parupeneus marcronemus Munro, 1955
Pseudupeneus macronema Smith, 1949
Upeneus macronemus Day, 1878
Parupenaeus macronema (Lacepede, 1801)
Parupeneus macronema (Lacepede, 1801)
Pseudupeneus macronema (Lacepede, 1801)

Common Name (s)
• Kaluoh (Mahl)
• Manakkam (Malayalam)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries, aquarium, Ornamental fish)

Habitat:  Reef Associated
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Crustaceans and worms


• Lakshadweep, Agatti INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Amini INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kalpeni INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kadamatt INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kavaratti INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kilttan INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA
• Red Sea
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kadamatt INDIA (Record: 05/01/1987-06/02/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Bangaram INDIA (Record: 09/02/1987-25/02/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Agatti INDIA (Record: 09/02/1987-25/02/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Agatti INDIA (Record: 01/1987-04/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Andrott INDIA (Record: 01/1987-04/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Bangaram INDIA (Record: 01/1987-04/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Chettalatt INDIA (Record: 01/1987-04/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Kavaratti INDIA (Record: 01/1987-04/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Kilttan INDIA (Record: 01/1987-04/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA (Record: 01/1987-04/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Bitra INDIA (Record: 11/1993-01/1997)
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy Island (Lat: 8.11) (Long: 73.3) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Jones, S and Kumaran, M (1980) Fishes of the Laccadive Archipelago The Nature Conservation and Aquatic Sciences Service, Trivandrum, Kerala 760 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at -
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 3 Available at -
  • Murty, VS (1996) Marine ornamental fishes of India Proceedings of the Seminar on Fisheries - A Multibillion Dollar Industry, Madras CMFRI 23-34 Available at -
  • Kumaran, M; Murty, VS and Lalmohan, RS (1989) Resources of ornamental fishes Marine living resources of the union territory of Lakshadweep: An indicative survey with suggestions for development Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI 43 46-64 Available at -
  • Kumaran, M; Mohan, RSL and Murty, VS (1989) Other fin-fish resources Marine living resources of the union territory of Lakshadweep: An indicative survey with suggestions for development Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI 43 65-72 Available at -
  • Murty, VS (2002) Marine ornamental fish resources of Lakshadweep CMFRI Special Publication CMFRI 72 1-134 Available at -
  • Jones, S and Kumaran, M (1959) The fishing industry of Minicoy Island with special reference to the tuna fishery Indian Journal of Fisheries Indian Council of Agricultural Research 6 (1) 30-57 Available at -
  • Varghese, M; Manisseri, MK; Ramamurthy, N; Geetha, PM; Thomas, VJ and Gandhi, A (2011) Coral reef fishes of Gulf of Mannar, S.E of India Fishing Chimes CMFRI 31(1) 38-40 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Murty, VS (2001) Ornamental fish resources of Lakshadweep Bulletins of the Geological Survey of India 56 103-111 Available at -

Page last updated on:2011-06-28

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