Sparus spinifer   Forsskal  1775 (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Size: 60 cm.

Color: In preserved specimens brownish.

Body very deep. Dorsal profile much arched. Profile of head very steep, the tip of the snout about one eye-diameter before vertical through front border of eye, but its distance from eye is equal to 1.7 eye-diameters. Height 1.8, 2.2-2.3 in length with caudal. Head 3-3.1, 3.9 in length with caudal, 1.5 in height of head, measured in vertical through hind border of preoperculum. Eye 3.1, more than somewhat convex inter orbital space and 1.7 in snout. Maxillary reaching to vertical through front border of eye. Mouth reaching to vertical through front border of eye. Mouth somewhat oblique. Four canines in front of upper jaw and 3 rows of molar on each side, 6 much smaller canines in the lower jaw and 2 rows of molars on each side behind them. Scales on upper part of head extending in a triangular prolongation to between eyes. Preoperculum with 5 transverse rows of scales. Dorsal spines flexible, laterally flattened, almost ribbon-shaped, the second to fifth prolonged into long filaments, that of the second spine reaching to base of caudal when depressed. Soft dorsal and anal rounded, truncate behind. First anal spine less than half length of second, which is somewhat longer and stronger than third and equal to snout. Pectorals much longer than head, about equal to distance between isthmus and anus. Ventrals with the first ray produced, equal to length of head. Caudal forked. Least height of caudal peduncle 1.2 in its length.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Sparus spinifer Forsskal 1775
Sparus spinifer Bloch and Schneider 1801
Sparus spinifer Lacepede 1802
Pagrus spinifer Cuvier and Valenciennes 1830
Pagrus filamentosus Cuvier and Valenciennes
Pagrus longifilis Cuvier and Valenciennes
Pagrus spinifer Ruppell 1835
Pagrus longifilis Bleeker 1859
Pagrus spinifer Gunther 1859
Pagrus filamentosus Bleeker 1860
Chrysophrys spinifera Steindachner 1861
Pagrus spinifer Klunzinger 1870
Pagrus spinifer Day 1888
Sparus spinifer Bleeker 1877
Sparus (Pagrus) spinifer Klunzinger 1884
Sparus (Pagrus) spinifer Pfeffer
Argyrops longifilis Jordan and Evermann 1902
Pagrus spinifer Fowler and Bean 1922
Argyrops spinifer McCulloch 1922
Pagrus spinifer Barnadr 1927
Pagrus spinifer Herre and Montalban 1927
Argyrops spinifer Fowler 1933

Common Name (s)
Economic Importance and Threats



• INDIA (Record: 1936)

Literature Source(s)
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Weber, M; Beaufort, LF (1936) The fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago Print times, Pataudi house, Daryaganj, New Delhi 7 607 pp Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2009-10-21

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