Torpedo marmorata   Risso,  1810 (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Elasmobranchii

Image copyrights: National Museums of Northern Ireland

Size: 37 cm - 100 cm

Color: Upper parts of head, body and fins marbled with brown and whitish; lower surface white.

Disc more than half of total length. Disc slightly broader than long, its outline somewhat circular. Spiracle separate from eye by about one eye diameter with a number of small fleshy tentacles on hind margin. First dorsal fin larger than second dorsal, its anterior half opposite to base of ventrals. Caudal somewhat rounded. Short tail; mouth narrow, without a groove below the lower jaw; the jaws are slender with small mono-cuspid teeth; no labial cartilages.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Narcobatus marmoratus (Risso, 1810)
Torpedo diversicolor Davy, 1834
Torpedo marmorata Risso, 1810
Torpedo fuscomaculata Smith and Smith, 1963
Narcacion marmoratus (Risso, 1810)
Torpedo galvani Risso, 1810
Torpedo immaculata Rafinesque, 1810
Torpedo picta Lowe, 1843
Torpedo punctata Rafinesque, 1810
Torpedo trepidans Valenciennes, 1843
Torpedo vulgaris Fleming, 1828

Common Name (s)
• Thimithirandi
• Electric Ray (English)
• Marbled Electric Ray (English)
• Bijali (Marathi)
• Zinzina (Marathi)
• Torpedo Electric Ray (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Flesh cut into pieces is used as bait; public aquariums; skin is used to prepare toy drums)

Habitat:  Reef Associated
Prey:  Feeds on small benthic fishes (Trichiurus spp., Mugil, Dascyllus spp., Pomacentrus spp.) and crustaceans


• Lakshadweep, Kavaratti INDIA
• Off South West Coast INDIA (Record: 01/1962-12/1968) (Depth: 180-450 mts)

Literature Source(s)
  • Jones, S and Kumaran, M (1980) Fishes of the Laccadive Archipelago The Nature Conservation and Aquatic Sciences Service, Trivandrum, Kerala 760 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Encyclopedia of Marine Life of Britain and Ireland Available at -
  • Raje, SG; Sivakami, S; Mohanraj, G; Manoj Kumar, PP; Raju, A and Joshi, KK (2007) An atlas on the Elasmobranch fishery resources of India CMFRI Special publication CMFRI, Cochin, India. 95 253pp Available at -
  • Silas, EG (1969) Part-1 Exploratory otter trawling surveys by R.V. Varuna and other vessels operating in association with her from the continental shelf edge and the upper continental slope off the south-west coast of India Exploratory fishing by R.V. Varuna Bulletin Of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 12 7-51 Available at -
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at -

Page last updated on:2011-10-11

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