Lethrinus miniatus   (Bloch & Schneider,  1801) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Randall, J.E.

Size: Max length 90.0 cm TL male/unsexed; common length 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed;

Max. weight reported: 9,600 g

Color: In alcohol specimens brownish above, silvery below. A blackish spot, about 4 scales high and 5 scales long, below lateral line and about middle of pectoral. Body with more or less distinct incomplete blackish cross bands, not always conspicuous. Three dark brown straight stripes from front border of eye to maxillary. Preoperculum and operculum with similar stripes or blotches. Vertical fins with more or less conspicuous dark bands. Pectorals yellowish, ventrals leaden-color, darker towards the end.

Height 2.8-3.2, 3.5-3.9 in length with caudal. Head 2.5-2.8, 3-3.3 in length with caudal. Eye 3.7-6.2. Inter orbital space flat or slightly concave, somewhat less than eye in young specimens, more than eye in large ones. Relative length of sides of triangle, formed by middle of pupil, angle of preoperculum and snout (in this sequence) 1:2:1.6. Mouth almost horizontal, its corner before anterior nostril. Lips thick. Canines moderate, slightly curved, lateral teeth small, pointed, even in large specimens. Six to six and a half rows of scales between origin of dorsal and lateral line. Dorsal spines slender, third to fifth longest, equal to or somewhat longer than post orbital part of head. Longest soft dorsal half diameter of eye longer. Origin of anal separated by 16 scales from lateral line, below last dorsal spine. Second anal spine thicker and somewhat shorter than third one, which equals eye or is half diameter of eye longer and which is somewhat shorter than soft anal rays. Ventrals pointed, scarcely shorter than pectorals, which equal snout in length. Caudal incised, the lobes pointed. Least height of caudal peduncle twice in its length.

External fertilization, nonguarders, open water/substratum egg scatterers; serial hermaphrodites with a protogynous strategy (i.e, female first, male second). Sexual bimodality was present in both age and length frequency distributions.

Max. age reported: 22 years

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Lethrinus longirostris Playfair and Gunther, 1866
Lethrinus rostratus Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1830
Lethrinus rostratus Gunther, 1859
Lethrinus rostratus Bleeker, 1850
Lethrinus miniatus Gunther, 1873
Lethrinus miniatus Bleeker, 1877
Lethrinus miniatus Klunzinger, 1884
Lethrinus olivaceus Sauvage, 1891
Lethrinus (Lethrinella) miniatus Fowler, 1904
Lethrinella miniata Jordan and Seale, 1906
Lethrinus miniatus Steindachner, 1906
Lethrinus miniatus Barnard, 1927
Lethrinus miniatus Herre and Montalban, 1927
Lethrinus miniatus Fowler, 1933
Sparus miniatus Forster, 1801
(Senior synonym)
Lethrinella miniata (Forster, 1801)
(Senior synonym)
Lethrinella miniatus (Forster, 1801)
(Senior synonym)
Lethrinus amamianus Akazaki, 1962
(Junior synonym)
Lethrinus chrysostomus Richardson, 1848
(Junior synonym)
Lethrinus imperialis De Vis, 1884
(Junior synonym)

Common Name (s)
• Longface Emperor (English)
• Thundigufilolu (Mahl)
• Pulmetti
• Puimetti (Malayalam)
• Kadu (Malayalam)
• Chemballi (Malayalam)
• Starry Pigface Bream (English)
• Trumpet emperor (English)
• Long face Emperior bream (English)
• Vilaimeen
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial, Dangers
(Fisheries, gamefish
Causes ciguatera poisoning)

Habitat:  Reef Associated, Estuarine
Prey:  Crustaceans, echinoderms, mollusks and fish, with crabs and sea urchins.


• Tamil Nadu, Thoothukkudi coast INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Tuticorin INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Kilakarai INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Tamil Nadu INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Shakila, RJ; Vijayalakshmi, K and Jeyasekaran, G (2003) Changes in histamine and volatile amines in six commercially important species of fish of the Thoothukkudi coast of Tamil Nadu, India stored at ambient temperature Food Chemistry Elsevier 82(3) 347-352 Available at - http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(02)00552-6
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Weber, M; Beaufort, LF (1936) The fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago Print times, Pataudi house, Daryaganj, New Delhi 7 607 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at - http://www.fishbase.org
  • Talwar, PK and Kacker, RK (1984) Commercial sea fishes of India ZSI, Calcutta 997 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Fischer, W and Whitehead, PJP (1974) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Eastern Indian Ocean - Fishing Area 57 and Western Central Pacific - Fishing Area 71 FAO, Rome 2 Available at - http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/e9163e/e9163e00.htm
  • Dr. Kumaraguru, AK (2000) Studies on socioeconomics of Coral Reef resource users in the Gulf of Mannar coast, South India Centre for Marine and Coastal studies School of Energy, Environment and Natural Resources Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, India Available at - http://planningcommission.nic.in/reports/sereport/ser/stdy_coral.pdf
  • Murty, VS (1969) Catalogue of fishes (excluding from the Laccadives) in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 10 1-38 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/571/1/Bulletin_10.pdf
  • Varghese, M; Manisseri, MK; Ramamurthy, N; Geetha, PM; Thomas, VJ and Gandhi, A (2011) Coral reef fishes of Gulf of Mannar, S.E of India Fishing Chimes CMFRI 31(1) 38-40 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • James, PSBR; Lazarius, S and Arumugam, G (1994) The present status of 'Major Perch' fisheries in India Perch fisheries in India Bulletin Of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 47 1-9 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/8218/1/Bulletin_No_47.pdf

Page last updated on:2011-09-07

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