Epinephelus coioides   (Hamilton,  1822) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Randall, JE

Size: Max length 120 cm TL.

Max. weight reported: 15.0 kg.

Dorsal spines (total): 11; dorsal soft rays (total): 13-16; anal spines: 3; anal soft rays: 8. Small individuals closely resemble Epinephelus tauvina and Epinephelus malabaricus, but have orange spots and lack hexagonal spots on the fins.

Protogynous, external fertilization, nonguarders, open water/substratum egg scatterers. Pelagic spawner.

Max. age reported: 22 years.

Synonym (s)
Bola coioides Hamilton, 1822
(Senior synonym)
Cephalopholis nebulosus (Valenciennes, 1828)
(Junior synonym)
Epinephelus flavocaeruleus (non Lacepede, 1802)
(Misapplied name)
Epinephelus malabaricus (non Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
(Misapplied name)
Epinephelus nebulosus (Valenciennes, 1828)
(Junior synonym)
Epinephelus salmoides (non Lacepede, 1802)
(Misapplied name)
Epinephelus suillus (Valenciennes, 1828)
(Junior synonym)
Epinephelus tauvina (non Forrskal, 1775)
(Misapplied name)
Homalogrystes guntheri Alleyne & Macleay, 1877
(Junior synonym)
Serranus nebulosus Valenciennes, 1828
(Junior synonym)
Serranus salmonoides (non Valenciennes, 1828)
(Misapplied name)
Serranus suillus Valenciennes, 1828
(Junior synonym)
Epinephelus coiodes (Hamilton, 1822)

Common Name (s)
• Orange-Spotted Grouper (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries, aquaculture.)
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(Overfishing and habitat destruction are the two most possible threats. Habitat destruction includes that of coral reefs (adult habitat) and mangroves (juvenile habitat along with estuaries).)
Cultured:  Yes

Habitat:  Reef Associated, Estuarine, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Tertiary Consumer
Prey:  Small fishes, shrimps, and crabs


• Tamil Nadu, Chennai Coast INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Great Nicobar Island INDIA (Record: 08/2000-07/2003)
• Goa, Grand Island INDIA (Record: 01/2002-04/2002, 09/2002-12/2002) (Depth: 2-12 mts)
• Karnataka, Netrani Island INDIA (Record: 01/2002-04/2002, 09/2002-12/2002) (Depth: 3-16 mts)
• Kerala, Vizhinjam INDIA (Record: 01/2002-04/2002, 09/2002-12/2002) (Depth: 3-11 mts)
• Kerala, Poovar INDIA (Record: 01/2002-04/2002, 09/2002-12/2002) (Depth: 10-16 mts)

Literature Source(s)
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in/PDF/coastal%20data.pdf
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at - http://www.fishbase.org
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at - http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  • Rajaram, R; Srinivasan, M; Khan, SA and Kannan, L (2004) Ichthyofaunal diversity of great Nicobar Island, Bay of Bengal Journal of Indian fisheries association 31 13-26 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Rajaram, R and Nedumaran, T (2009) Ichthyofaunal diversity in great Nicobar biosphere reserve, Bay of Bengal Journal of Threatened Taxa Wildlife Information Liaison Development Society 1(3) 166-169 Available at - http://threatenedtaxa.org/ZooPrintJournal/2009/March/o198526iii09166-169.pdf
  • Sluka, RD and Lazarus, S (2010) Grouper (Pisces: Serranidae) relative abundance and diversity on the west coast of India Marine Biodiversity Records Cambridge University Press 3 1-3 Available at - http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1755267210000606

Page last updated on:2011-03-07

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