Urogymnus asperrimus   (Bloch & Scheider,  1801) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Elasmobranchii

Image copyrights: Randall, J.E.

Size: 56 cm - 180 cm

Color: Light grey or whitish dorsally, white ventrally; tail blackish.

A heavily armored stingray lacking a venomous barb; young with large, flat denticles on upper surface, and large juveniles and adults with additional sharp conical thorns and small, pointed denticles. Very thick elongated disc with broadly rounded outer corners; snout broadly rounded and tail slender, about as long as body and without finfolds. Back and tail covered with osseous tubercles

Dioecious, internal (oviduct) fertilization, internal live bearers. Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialized structures. Distinct pairing with embrace. Distinct pairing with embrace.

Synonym (s)
Anacanthus africanus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
(Junior synonym)
Raja africana Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
(Junior synonym)
Raja asperrima Bloch & Schneider, 1801
(Senior synonym)
Urogymnus africanus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
(Junior synonym)
Urogymnus asperrimus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
(Senior synonym)
Urogymnus asperrimus solanderi Whitley, 1939
(Junior synonym)
Urogymnus rhombeus Klunzinger, 1871
(Junior synonym)
Urogymnosus africanus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
Urogymnus africana (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
Urogymnus aperrimus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)

Common Name (s)
• Thorny Ray (English)
• Moolan Tiriki (Tamil)
• Porcupine Ray (English)
• Pakat (Marathi)
• Kallu Thirukkai (Tamil)
• Mullan - Thirukkai (Tamil)
• Karimadi
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial, Dangers
(Fisheries. Utilized for its meat, skin (very high value) and cartilage.
Traumatogenic. Its thorn can inflict a painful injury.)

Habitat:  Reef Associated, Estuarine, Sandy, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Secondary Consumer
Prey:  Benthic crustaceans, worms, bony fish
IUCN Status:  Vulnerable


• Tamil Nadu, Chennai Coast INDIA (Record: 2003)
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA (Record: 2003)
• Red Sea
• East Coast INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at - http://www.fishbase.org
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at - http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in/PDF/coastal%20data.pdf
  • Raje, SG; Sivakami, S; Mohanraj, G; Manoj Kumar, PP; Raju, A and Joshi, KK (2007) An atlas on the Elasmobranch fishery resources of India CMFRI Special publication CMFRI, Cochin, India. 95 253pp Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/4056/1/Special_Publn_95.pdf

Page last updated on:2011-04-01

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