Therapon theraps   Cuvier,  1829 (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Size: 19.5 cm.

Color: More or less dusky above, slivery below, with 3 to 4 longitudinal brownish broad bands; the upper covers a part of the nape and the back and may be confluent in younger specimens with the second, which extends from the eye to the upper half of the caudal peduncle, The third from eye to caudal continued to margin of that fin, the fourth from pectorlas to caudal may be wanting in adult. Caudal with 2 oblique bands on both lobes. A large blackish blotch between third and seventh dorsal spine, soft dorsal with 2 dark blotches.

Height 2.5 to about 3 in length, head 3 to 3.5, its profile convex on snout, fartheron steep to dorsal, vertex with bony ridges and rugae. eye 3 to 3.5 in head, about equal to blunt snout, its diameter equal to or a little greater than rough interorbital space. Nostrils approximate, separated by the distance of their own length, the anterior smaller than the posterior triangular one. Praeorbital slightly serrate. Jaws equal, maxillary extending to below anterior part of eye. Praeoperculum moderately but evenly serrate, somewhat stronger at the rounded angle, operculum with 2 spines, the lower much the longest, produced beyond the opercular lobe. Coracoid dentate, suprascapular bone exposed, strongly denticulate. Gillrakers short about 12 on lower limb of first arch. About 7-8 scales between lateral line and spinous dorsal. Teeth in jaws in villiform bands, the outer series enlarged, lacking teeth on vomer and palatines. Dorsal deeply notched in its spinous portion, the penultimate spine being much shorter than the ultimate and the 3rd to 5th the longest, higher than the soft portion, which is angulate and has a straight or emarginate margin. Anal with the third spine usually longer than the second, its margin somewhat emarginate or straight. Both fins with a low scaly sheath. Caudal somewhat emarginate with 15 divided rays and prominent lobes. Pectorals and ventrals acute, about equal to head without snout, first ray ventrals with a short filament not reaching vent.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Therapon theraps Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1829
Datnia virgata Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1830
Therapon theraps Richardson, 1842
Therapon theraps Bleeker, 1849
Therapon obscurus Cantor, 1850
Datnia virgata Ruppell, 1852
Therapon theraps Kner, 1867
Therapon theraps Klunzinger, 1870
Therapon (Datnia) theraps Bleeker, 1873
Therapon theraps Gunther, 1875
Therapon (Datnia) theraps Bleeker, 1876
Therapon theraps Day, 1888
Therapon nigripinnis Macleay, 1881
Therapon theraps Klunzinger, 1884
Therapon theraps Jordan and Seale, 1907
Therapon theraps M. Weber, 1913
Therapon theraps Ogilby and McCulloch, 1916
Therapon theraps Barnard, 1927
Therapon theraps Vinciguerra, 1926
Therapon theraps Duncker and Mohr, 1929
Therapon theraps Fowler, 1928
Eutherapon theraps Munro, 1955

Common Name (s)
• Kallakeedam
Economic Importance and Threats



• Bay of Bengal INDIA (Record: 1931)
• North Andaman Sea INDIA
• West Bengal, Digha Coast (Lat: 21.61) (Long: 87.53) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai Coast INDIA (Record: 2008)
• Lakshadweep, Agatti INDIA (Record: 1980)
• Red Sea (Record: 1980)
• Lakshadweep INDIA (Record: 1980)
• SRI LANKA (Record: 1980)
• Gujarat INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Wafar, MVM (2003) Checklists of reef fauna Available at -
  • Ahmad, J (1985) Digenetic trematodes of marine fishes from the Arabian Sea. Part 43 Pakistan Journal of Zoology 17(2) 147-164 Available at - NCL, Pune (ASFA Records)
  • Vasanth, V and Reddy, PSR (1987) On the osteology of therapon perches (Pisces: Theraponidae), Therapon puta, T. jarbua, T. theraps and Pelates quadrilineatus Indian Journal of Fisheries 34(1) 39832 Available at - NCL, Pune (ASFA Records)
  • Ahmad, J (1988) Two new species of Allodecemtestis Digenea Opecoelidae from marine fishes of Bay of Bengal Angewandte-Parasitologie 29(4) 235-239 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Hutomo, M and Martosewojo, S (1977) The fishes of seagrass community on the west side of Burung island (Pari Islands, Seribu Islands) and their variations in abundance Marine Research in Indonesia 17 147-172 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Kuronuma, K and Abe, Y (1986) Fishes of the Arabian Gulf Fishes of the Arabian Gulf 1-356 Available at - ZOOR12500001320
  • Fayad, NM; Ilias, S and AlThukair, A (1986) Spectrophotometric determination of total phenolic compounds in some species of Arabian Gulf fish Marine Environment and Pollution. Proceedings of the First Arabian Gulf Conference on Environment and Pollution. Kuwait, 7-9 February 1982 127-132 Available at - Zoological records
  • Goswami, BCB (1992) Marine fauna of Digha coast of West Bengal, India Journal of Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 34 115-137 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Day, F (1981) The fishes of Malabar 1-281 Available at - CMFRI, Kochi
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Weber, M; Beaufort, LF (1931) The fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago Print times, Pataudi house, Daryaganj, New Delhi 6 448 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • ndkj Available at -
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at -
  • Jones, S and Kumaran, M (1980) Fishes of the Laccadive Archipelago The Nature Conservation and Aquatic Sciences Service, Trivandrum, Kerala 760 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Kizhakudan, SJ; Nair, KVS and Zala, MS Demersal Finfish Resources of Gujarat Sustainable fisheries development: Focus on Gujarat 57-66 Available at -
  • Bapat, SV; Deshmukh, VM; Krishnamoorthi, B; Muthiah, C; Kagwade, PV; Ramamirtham, CP; Mathew, KJ; Pillai, SK and C. Mukundan (1982) Species composition, distribution and abundance of major groups/species Fishery resources of the Exclusive Economic Zone of the NorthWest coast of India Bulletin Of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute CMFRI, Kochi 33 1-86 Available at -

Page last updated on:2011-09-20

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