Diodon hystrix   Linnaeus,  1758 (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Randall, J.E.

Size: 91.0 cm TL (male)

Max. weight reported: 2,800 g

Color: Body grayish tan, with small black spots, but no large dark blotches. Belly white, surrounded by dusky ring. Back, flanks and fins light brown with numerous dark spots.

Head 2.8-3.0 in standard length, 3.3-3.6 in total length. Eye diameter 4.5-5.0 in head, 1.3-1.6 in snout and 3.3-3.8 in slightly concave interorbital space. Nostril a compressed tube with openings on both sides. Spines two rooted except some on posterior part of back and sides. Most spines movable. 3 or 4 spines above eye, 16 or 17 series of spines from snout to dorsal origin. Spines on forehead equal to or slightly longer than eye, those behind pectoral longer, 1.5-1.8 eye diameter. Pectoral fin as long as half length of head. Longest dorsal rays 1.7-2.1 of eye diameter, longest anal rays as long as those of dorsal.
Number of spines and rays in the dorsal fin: ii, 13; number of spines and rays in the anal fin: ii, 13; number of rays in the pectoral fin: i, 22.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Diodon armillatus Whitley, 1933
(Junior synonym)
Diodon brachiatus Bloch & Schneider, 1801
(Junior synonym)
Diodon hystrix hystrix Linnaeus, 1758
(Senior synonym)
Diodon nudifrons Jenkins, 1903
(Junior synonym)
Diodon punctatus Cuvier, 1818
(Junior synonym)
Diodon spinosissimus Cuvier, 1818
(Junior synonym)
Diodon totara Curtiss, 1938
(Junior synonym)
Paradiodon hystrix (Linnaeus, 1758)
(Senior synonym)
Diodon histrix Linnaeus, 1758
Diodon hystrax Linnaeus, 1758
Diodon hystris Linnaeus, 1758

Common Name (s)
• Spotted Porcupine Fish (English)
• Bankocho (Konkani)
• Kari Koli (Mahl)
• Mullan Chamanian (Malayalam)
• Veerkunnon (Malayalam)
• Mullu Pethai
• Porcupinefish (English)
• Spot-fin Porcupinefish (English)
• Spotted Porcupine (English)
• Govido
• Shahudi
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial, Dangers
(Fisheries, aquarium.
Poisonous to eat.)

Habitat:  Benthic, Pelagic, Reef Associated
Trophic Level:  Secondary Consumer
Prey:  Fishes, benthic crustaceans, sea urchins, gastropods, bivalves and hermit crabs
Predator:  Fishes (Coryphaena hippurus, Istiophorus albicans, Makaira nigricans, Tetrapturus albidus, Acanthocybium solandri), shark (Galeocerdo cuvier)


• Lakshadweep, Kavaratti Atoll (Lat: 10.55) (Long: 72.63) INDIA (Record: 01/1991-06/1992)
• Lakshadweep, Bitra INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Kerala INDIA
• Kerala, Vizhinjam INDIA
• South West Coast INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Gujarat INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Anand, PEV and Pillai, NGK (2003) Habitat distribution and species diversity of coral reef fishes in the reefslope of the Kavaratti atoll, Lakshadweep, India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 45(1) 88-98 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at - http://www.fishbase.org
  • Jones, S and Kumaran, M (1980) Fishes of the Laccadive Archipelago The Nature Conservation and Aquatic Sciences Service, Trivandrum, Kerala 760 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Dr. Kumaraguru, AK (2000) Studies on socioeconomics of Coral Reef resource users in the Gulf of Mannar coast, South India Centre for Marine and Coastal studies School of Energy, Environment and Natural Resources Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, India Available at - http://planningcommission.nic.in/reports/sereport/ser/stdy_coral.pdf
  • Bijukumar, A and Deepthi, GR (2009) Mean trophic index of fish fauna associated with trawl bycatch of Kerala, southwest coast of India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 51(2) 145 - 154 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Kuthalingam, MDK; Rajagopalan, MS; Sreenivasan, PV; Lazarus, S and Livingston, P (1973) On some interesting fishes from the southwest coast of India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India Marine Biological Association of India 15 (2) 877-881 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/1786/1/Kuthalingam_877-881.pdf
  • Radhakrishnan, S and Nair, NB (1980) On the metazoan parasites associated with fishes along the southwest coast of India The journal of marine biological association of India The marine biological association of India 22(1&2) 21-38 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Talwar, PK (1990) Fishes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands: A synoptic survey Journal of the Andaman Science Association Andaman Science Association, Port Blair 6(2) 71-102 Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Dholakia, AD (2004) Marine resources Fisheries and aquatic resources of India Daya publishing house 271-303 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at - eprints.cmfri.org.in/3975/1/Special_Publication_No_12_Revised.pdf
  • Biswas, KP (2009) Fishes around Indian Ocean Muraenidae-Eel Daya publishing house Available at - NIO,Goa

Page last updated on:2011-12-19

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