Epinephelus miniatus   (Forskal,  1775) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Size: 41 cm.

Color: In alcohol specimens lighter or darker brown, head, body, caudal, dorsal and anal covered with dark spots, with a light bluish centre, which disappears often in alcohol. Pectorals and ventrals without or with a few spots only.

Height 2.7-2.9, 3.3-3.6 in length with caudal. Head 2.2-2.5, 2.8-3.1 in length with caudal. Eye 5.6-6.6, 1.4-2 in snout and equal to or a little more than interorbital space. Lower jaw strongly projecting. Mouth oblique, maxillary reaching to below posterior border of eye or beyond, the width of its distal extremity nearly equal to diameter of eye. Praeoperculum evenly serrated, its angle rounded. Middle opercular spine nearer to lower than to upper one. Opercular flap obtusely pointed the upper border strongly curved. Teeth forming rather narrow bands in jaws, the inner row of depressible teeth in the mandibles and those near symphysis of upper jaw long and slender. An outer row of fixed teeth in the upper jaw, ending near symphysis at each side with one or two canines of moderate length. Similar canines in the lower jaw. Head including maxillaries, covered with cycloid scales. Gillrakers 10 and several rudiments, on lower part of anterior arch. Dorsal originating above base of pectorals. Spines increasing in length to the third, which goes three times in head. Posterior soft rays much longer. Second and third anal spine subequal, much shorter than longest soft anal rays. Pectorals as long as postorbital part of head, ventrals one eye diameter shorter. Caudal rounded. Scales ciliated.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Perca miniata Forskal, 1775
Pomacentrus burdi Lacepede, 1802
Diacope miniata Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1828
Serranus miniatus Ruppell, 1828
Cromileptes miniatus Swainson, 1839
Serranus cyanostigmatoides Bleeker, 1849
Serranus miniatus Gunther, 1859
Epinephelus cyanostigmatoides Bleeker, 1863
Serranus miniatus Klunzinger, 1870
Serranus miniatus Gunther, 1875
Epinephelus miniatus Bleeker, 1876
Serranus miniatus Day, 1888
Serranus cyanostigmatoides Perugia, 1889
Epinephelus miniatus Sauvage, 1891
Epinephelus miniatus Boulenger, 1895
Cephalopholis miniatus Seale, 1906
Cephalopholis miniatus Jordan and Seale, 1906
Epinephelus miniatus Pellegrin, 1907
Cephalopholis miniatus Fowler, 1907
Cephalopholis miniatus Jordan and Richardson, 1908
Epinephelus miniatus Barnard, 1927
Cephalopholis miniatus Fowler, 1928

Common Name (s)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Ornamental fish)



• Tamil Nadu, Chennai INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Palk Bay INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Tuticorin INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Weber, M; Beaufort, LF (1931) The fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago Print times, Pataudi house, Daryaganj, New Delhi 6 448 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in
  • Murty, VS (1996) Marine ornamental fishes of India Proceedings of the Seminar on Fisheries - A Multibillion Dollar Industry, Madras CMFRI 23-34 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/7786/1/678-Mur.pdf
  • Murty, VS (1969) Catalogue of fishes (excluding from the Laccadives) in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 10 1-38 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/571/1/Bulletin_10.pdf

Page last updated on:2011-05-16

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