Johnius carutta   Bloch,  1793 (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Randall, J.E.

Size: 30 cm.

Color: Purplish brown from the presence of numerous fine dots, but becoming golden in lower fourth of body, lateral line generally lighter than contiguous part. Head glossed with purple. First dorsal fin dark, the others with grey edges. A silvery streak along the lateral line.

Height 3 1/2 to 4, head 4 1/3 to 4 1/2 in total length. Eye 4 to 5 1/4 in length of head, 1 1/4 from end of snout and also apart. Snout inflated, overhanging the upper jaw, which slightly overlaps the lower, distance between eye and upper edge of maxilla equals diameter of orbital, cleft of mouth nearly horizontal maxillary reaching 3/5 in eye, length 2 3/4 to 3 in head, 5 pores on chin. Preopercle crenulated, more especially along its lower border, opercle with two weak spines. A row of pores across the snout, 5 along edge of free border, and a lateral lode. Teeth in jaws in villi form bands, only upper row enlarged. Dorsal spine weak, second and third the longest, 1/3 higher than rays and 1/2 height of body, outer ventral ray, elongate. Second anal spine weak, nearly 2/3 as high as first ray, and 2/7 to 2/5 length of head. Caudal rhomboidal, least height of caudal peduncle 3 1/2 to 3 4/5 in head. The series of scales run rather obliquely upward both above and below the lateral line. The membrane of the soft dorsal is inconspicuously scaled nearly or quite to its outer edge. DOB 27-32 %, snout rounded, mouth small, inferior. HL 26-30 %, ED 27-28 %. Teeth differentiated into large and small in upper jaw only, larger ones closely set, lower jaw teeth small, no canines, gill rakers in the lower limb of Ist gill arch 7-8, IInd AFS weak 7-10 %. Sagitta: head of the tadpole shaped impression lying parallel to that of the broad anterior end, tail ending into a deep cone. Swim bladder hammer shaped with 16 pairs of arborescent appendages, the Ist entering the head. Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 26-29; Anal spines: 2; Anal soft rays: 7

Breeds in rainy season and winter season.

Remarks: Measurements on Head Length (HL), Depth of body (DOB) and length of IInd Anal fin spine (II AFS.) were converted as % of Standard Length (SL). Eye Diameter (ED) is presented as percentage of HL.
Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Johnius carutta Bloch, 1793
(Senior synonym)
Sciaena carutta (Bloch, 1793)
(Senior synonym)
Labrus carutta Lacepede, 1802
Corvina carutta Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1830
Johnius carutta Cantor, 1850
Corvina carutta Ruppell, 1852
Corvina carutta Gunther, 1860
Corvina carutta Day, 1865
Johnius carutta Bleeker, 1874
Sciaena carutta Day, 1888
Corvina carutta Duncker, 1904
Johnius carutta Jordan and Seale, 1907
Johnius carutta Jordan and Starks, 1917
Johnius carutta Fowler, 1926
Sciaena carutta Hardenberg, 1931
Sciaena carutta Chevey, 1932
Johnius carutta Fowler, 1933
Johnius carutta Hardenberg, 1934
Johnius carulta Bloch, 1793

Common Name (s)
• Karut Croaker (English)
• Muttikora (Malayalam)
• Gorasa (Telugu)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries, sold fresh and dried-salted in markets.)

Habitat:  Coastal
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Small fishes and invertebrates


• Andhra Pradesh, Off Kakinada INDIA (Record: 1990-1999)
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai Coast INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika INDIA
• Pondicherry, Pondicherry mangrove (Lat: 11.76) (Long: 79.82) INDIA (Record: 01/2002-12/2003)
• Pondicherry, Pondicherry mangrove (Lat: 11.89) (Long: 79.8) INDIA (Record: 01/2002-12/2003)
• Pondicherry INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Parangipettai Coast (Lat: 11.48) (Long: 79.81) INDIA (Record: 12/2005-11/2006) (Depth: 12-30 mts)
• Orissa INDIA
• Orissa, Puri INDIA (Record: 1987-2006)
• Andhra Pradesh, Uppada INDIA
• Kerala, Kochi INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Off Visakhapatnam (Lat: 17.73) (Long: 83.55) INDIA (Record: 04/1989-03/1990) (Depth: 50 mts)
• Tamil Nadu INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Kakinada Coast INDIA
• West Bengal (Lat: 21.45) (Long: 87.9) INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Kakinada (Lat: 16.93) (Long: 82.22) INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Sivakami, S and Ramalingam, P (2003) The Sciaenid fishery resources off Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 45(1) 74-87 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at -
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at -
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at -
  • Weber, M; Beaufort, LF (1936) The fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago Print times, Pataudi house, Daryaganj, New Delhi 7 607 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Satapathy, D and Panda, S (2009) Fish atlas of Chilika Chilika Development Authority, Bhubaneswar 74 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 4 Available at -
  • Fischer, W and Whitehead, PJP (1974) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Eastern Indian Ocean - Fishing Area 57 and Western Central Pacific - Fishing Area 71 3 Available at -
  • Saravanan, KR; Ilangovan, K and Khan, AB (2008) Floristic and macro faunal diversity of Pondicherry mangroves, South India Tropical Ecology International Association for Ecology, Cambridge University Press 49(1) 91-94 Available at -
  • Veerappan, N; Anbalagan, T and Balasubramanian, T (2009) Survey on sound producing marine fishes and Ichthyoplankters of Parangipettai coastal waters, southeast coast of India American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Science International Digital Organization for Scientific Information 6(1) 35-40 Available at -
  • Ramani, K; Ammini, PL; Srinivasan, J; Najeemudeen, SH; Beena, MR; George, KP; Seynudeen, MB; Subbaraman, G; Anandan, K; Khambadkar, LL; Augustine, SK; Pugazhendi, D; Rudhramurthy, N; Subramani, S; Seetharaman, S; Batcha, HK and Sankaralingam, S (2010) An overview of marine fisheries in India during 2007 Marine Fisheries Information Service CMFRI, Kochi 203 1-14 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Ammini, PL; Khambadkar, LL and Augustine, SK (2008) A brief report on the marine fisheries of Puri, Orissa Marine Fisheries Information Service Technical and Extension Series CMFRI 195 6-10 Available at -
  • Murty, VS (1969) Catalogue of fishes (excluding from the Laccadives) in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 10 1-38 Available at -
  • Sabu, S; Gibinkumar, TR; Pravin, P and Boopendranath, MR (2011) Performance evaluation of bigeye bycatch reduction device in the seas off Cochin, India Fishery technology Society of fisheries technologists 48(1) 41-50 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Rao. TA (1976) Relative abundance of sciaenids along Andhra-Orissa coast Indian Journal of Fisheries 23 (1&2) 201-212 Available at -
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at -
  • Biswas, KP (2009) Fishes around Indian Ocean Sciaenid Fishes Daya publishing house Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Sujatha, K (1995) Finfish constituents of trawl by-catch off Visakhapatnam Fishery Technology Society of Fisheries Technologists 32(1) 56-60 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Biswas, KP (2009) Fishes around Indian Ocean Dominant Fish Groups Occurring in Indian Coasts Daya publishing house Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Das, P; De, SP; Bhowmik, RM; Pandit, IK; Sengupta, R; Nandi, AC; Thakurta, SC and Saha, S (2007) Piscine diversity of West Bengal Fishing chimes 27(5) 15-28 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Devaraj, M and Vivekanandan, E (1999) Marine capture fisheries of India: Challenges and Opportunities Current Science Current Science Association 76(3) 314-333 Available at -

Page last updated on:2012-03-13

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